Volume 44 (Issue 1) 2023

Suzelawati Zenian and Amirah Ramizah Bibi Abdul Rasheed

Nur Nazleen Johari1, Chee Fuei Pien1, Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim2, Bailon Golutin3 & Jedol Dayou*1

Mohd Shafreen Mad Isa1 and Baba Musta2

Ahmad Fauzi Othman1, Mohd Fadzil Arshad2, Zakiah Ahmad2, Amran Shafie1, Junaiza Ahmad Zaki1, Nur Hannani Abdul Latif1, Mohd Azrul Naim3*

Roziah K1, Kok Shien N1, Farzana M.A1, Siti Fatimah S1, Azura A1

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Suzelawati Zenian and Amirah Ramizah Bibi Abdul Rasheed

Mathematics with Computer Graphics, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. A weather forecast is a prediction of weather phenomena in the future by collecting as much data as possible. Major worldwide climate studies include the breakthrough and interpretation of complicated weather patterns in order to successfully forecast varied weather events. It is quite complex to screen so many parameters from several factors to discover precise weather conditions. In this paper, a fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS) is applied for weather forecasting in Kota Kinabalu. There are 234 fuzzy rules being developed as the FRBS are constructed along and successfully implemented in MATLAB. Based on the results, the comparison between actual and forecast data shows moderate precision as the accuracy level is higher than the level of error analysis.

KEYWORDS. Weather events, fuzzy rule-based system, forecasting, fuzzy set.


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The authors would like to express their appreciation and gratitude to the Research Management Centre, Universiti Malaysia Sabah for the continued support


Nur Nazleen Johari1, Chee Fuei Pien1, Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim2, Bailon Golutin3 & Jedol Dayou*1

1 Energy, Vibration and Sound Research Group (e-VIBS), Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
2 Mathematics with Economy Programme, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
3 Department of Mineral and Geoscience Sabah, Locked Bag 2042, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Corresponding author. Email: jed@ums.edu.my; Tel: +6-088-320302; Fax: +6-088-435324.

ABSTRACT: Seismic monitoring networks are the crucial elements in strong motion seismology for effective risk reduction. Low scale lateral variation of high intensity ground movement caused by earthquakes will be detected more effectively with densely located networks. However, the limitations of developing such project are rooted in expensive costs associated with the construction and installation in addition to bulky size of the conventional seismic observation system. Recently, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has being recognized in the applications of seismological and earthquake engineering due to the high precision obtained in these micron size semiconductor instruments and cheaper alternative for traditional seismic detector. ADXL345 is a type of digital triaxial MEMS accelerometer that is ideal for measurement of low-frequency vibrations and static accelerations of gravity, which makes it suitable for ground motion detection. Thus, this study aims at calibrating ADXL345 sensor that is required as sensing component in an affordable earthquake monitoring system with the Earthquake Benchmarking System (Penanda Aras Gempa Bumi, PAG) available in the inventory of Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia, Sabah. Soil vibrations in EW (east-west or x-axis), NS (north-south or y-axis), and UD (up-down or z-axis) directions during random forces hit on the surface are recorded by both accelerometers. Acceleration magnitudes recorded by PAG and ADXL345 are extracted and data exploration is performed. Predominantly, ADXL345 measurements in horizontal and vertical ground movements are on a higher scale than the reference device. Subsequently, evaluation by using descriptive statistical analysis is chosen to produce numerical equations for data correction operations. İmplementation of the mathematical functions in ADXL345 for observing land movements in EW, NS, and UD directions resulted in decreasing the range values of output readings. Higher approximation of magnitudes of ground motion with the PAG system is achieved.

KEYWORDS. affordable, ground motion, calibration, descriptive analysis



  • D’alessandro, A., D’anna, R., Greco, L., Passafiume, G., Scudero, S., Speciale, S., & Vitale, G. (2018). Monitoring Earthquake through MEMS Sensors (MEMS project) in the town of Acireale (Italy). 5th IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems, INERTIAL 2018 – Proceedings, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISISS.2018.8358143.
  • D’Alessandro, A., Luzio, D. & D’Anna, G. (2014). Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment. Advances in Geosciences, 40, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-40-1-2014.
  • Analog Devices. (2009). Digital Accelerometer: Data Sheet ADXL345. https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/ADXL345-EP.pdf.
  • Jena, R., & Pradhan, B. (2018). A novel model for comparing Peak Ground Acceleration derived from three attenuation laws using an integrated GIS technique in Sabah area, Malaysia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(9), 191–200. https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.9.2018.p8127.
  • Khoiry, M. A., Hamzah, N., Osman, S. A., Mutalib, A. A. & Hamid, R. (2018). Physical Damages Effect on Residential Houses Caused by the Earthquake at Ranau, Sabah Malaysia. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 10(5), 414 – 418. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJET.2018.V10.1094.
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  • Scudero, S., D’Alessandro, A., Greco, L. & Vitale, G. (2018). MEMS technology in seismology: A short review. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environmental Engineering, EE 2018 – Proceedings, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1109/EE1.2018.8385252.
  • Sigcha, L., Pavón, I., Arezes, P., Costa, N., De Arcas, G. & López, J. M. (2018). Occupational risk prevention through smartwatches: Precision and uncertainty effects of the built-in accelerometer. Sensors (Switzerland), 18(11): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113805.
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  • Tanırcan, G., Alçık, H. & Beyen, K. (2017). Reliability of MEMS accelerometers for instrumental intensity mapping of earthquakes. Annals of Geophysics, 60(6): SE673. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-7501.

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Collaboration of Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia, Sabah and fund from UMSGreat GUG0334-1/2019 in this research is greatly acknowledged.


Mohd Shafreen Mad Isa1 and Baba Musta2

1, 2 Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Email: shafreen@live.com.my1, babamus@ums.edu.my2

ABSTRACT This paper highlights the geochemical compositions and mineralogy of the alteration zone of the andesitic host rock and volcanic breccia in Bukit Mantri area near Balung, Tawau, Sabah, where a gold mining project is now taking place. Minerals identified by XRD analysis include quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, kaolinite, hematite, and goethite, while thin section analysis confirms the abundance of pyrite. XRF and ICP-OES analyses suggest a significant concentration of SO3, Cu, Pb, Zn and As, with average values of 2.68wt%, 254μg/g, 236.9μg/g, 232.9μg/g, and 30.6μg/g, respectively, in the hydrothermally altered andesite. The widespread presence of pyrite and higher concentration of SO3 provide insights for environmental control for its higher acidity generation potential. Meanwhile, secondary minerals such as iron and aluminium oxides and silicate minerals may provide acid buffers and reduce the dispersion of constituents.

KEYWORDS geochemistry, mineralogy, hydrothermal alterations, gold mineralisation, Bukit Mantri



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Ahmad Fauzi Othman1, Mohd Fadzil Arshad2, Zakiah Ahmad2, Amran Shafie1, Junaiza Ahmad Zaki1, Nur Hannani Abdul Latif1, Mohd Azrul Naim3*
1Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Bandar Jengka, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak, Pahang
2College of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor
3Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang

ABSTRACT. Oil palm trunk is one of the promising biomass materials due to the high volume of unused waste components and increasing worldwide demand to replace conventional wood. This study investigated the feasibility of using ethanol as a drying agent for oil palm trunks with different dimensional surfaces (radial, tangential and longitudinal sections). The radial shrinkage percentage for the outer layer is 1.50% (untreated) and 1.22 % (treated). In comparison, the inner layer of the untreated sample was recorded at 2.54 % shrinkage and the treated sample was at 2.29%. The tangential sample for the inner untreated sample shows 2.60% and the treated sample shows 2.40%. The same pattern of shrinkage was shown for the tangential section on the outer layer as 1.81% and 1.10% of the untreated and treated sample respectively. For the longitudinal surface, the inner layer section of the untreated sample was recorded at 0.39% compared to the treated sample at 0.25%. In comparison, a longitudinal surface section for the outer layer of the untreated sample was recorded at 0.38%, while the treated sample was recorded at 0.33% shrinkage percentage. The effect of ethanol treatment on the shrinkage is significantly different between different sections (P-value: 0.01) and between the outer and inner layers (P-value: 0.02). The result suggested that ethanol treatment could be an option for the oil palm trunk drying process. Dried oil palm trunks can be utilized as a potential substitution for biomass and wood to produce various products.

 Oil palm trunk (OPT), shrinkage percentage, moisture content, ethanol


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This study was funded by “Dana Dalam Negeri (DDN) Lestari Khas Fasa 2 with Grant Number: 600-TNCPI 5/3/DDN(06)(009/2021).


Roziah K1, Kok Shien N1, Farzana M.A1, Siti Fatimah S1, Azura A1

1Civil Engineering Studies, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


ABSTRACT. The recent agricultural and industrial waste reduction research has focused on monetary, sustainable environment, and technological considerations. Discarded raw materials such as rice husk ash, fly ash, coir fiber and silica fumes were widely explored and successfully utilized as blending elements for cement.  Current studies have proved that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) produced from sugar production has a pozzolanic reaction due to the high substance of amorphous silica in this raw material. This research would boost the insight of potential blending agents that can reduce the cost and stabilize problematic soil. This study intends to evaluate the effect of SCBA blended cement on improved soil’s mechanical properties, including the shear strength and the compressibility of the treated soil. Unconfined Compressive Strength test was conducted to attain the compressive behavior, while the One-Dimensional test was performed to examine the compressibility behavior. The tested samples with SCBA show a beneficial effect in terms of both compressive strength and compressibility.  This study proved that SCBA could be applied at least as a partial substitute to the Portland cement.

KEYWORDS. Sugarcane bagasse ash, pozzolanic reaction, compressive strength, compressibility


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Volume 43 (Issue 2), September 2022

– Nor Azira Mohd Radzi1, Latisha Asmaak Shafie2, Nor Alifah Rosaidi3, Razlina Razali4, Lew Ya Ling5 and Ku Azlina Ku Akil6

– Hardianshah Saleh1, Siam Jia Quan2, Muhammad Jaya Padriyamzah Bin Abdul Hamid3

Recovery of used lubricating oil by glacial acetic acid with two different activated carbons
– S. M. Anisuzzaman1,2* and Mohammad Hafiz Jumaidi2

Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) onto activated carbon derived from coffee waste
– S.M Anisuzzaman1, Collin G. Joseph2,*, Mintshe Tan2

– Ismail Abd Rahim1, Hardianshah Saleh2, Baba Musta2, Immas Janggok2 & Amy Natasha Arjali2




Nor Azira Mohd Radzi1, Latisha Asmaak Shafie2, Nor Alifah Rosaidi3, Razlina Razali4, Lew Ya Ling5 and Ku Azlina Ku Akil6

1, 2,3,4,5 Academy of Language Studies, 

6 Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, 

Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, 

Kampus Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

ABSTRACT.  Opinion leaders or social influencers possess the conviction of their followers in making personal and professional decisions. Their posts or sharing on social media may strongly influence their followers’ decision to practise some environmental actions in their daily lives. They are often labelled as the current thought leaders among the Millennials. Considering the critical environmental issues faced, many social influencers play important roles to show their willingness to change human destructive behaviours and conserve the environment for the future. Realising their influence on their followers, these environmental influencers relentlessly encourage their followers to support their missions. Thus, the study attempted to profile successful environmental leaders among social influencers from the views of their followers. The study was a qualitative multiple case study on five informants. The informants volunteered to participate and were from 100 university students. They were interviewed in a written semi-structured interview and researchers could reach them if clarification was needed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Peer debriefing was used to increase trustworthiness. The findings revealed that effective environmental leaders possessed these criteria: a) credibility; b) generosity; c) responsible creators; d) influential figures; e) trust builders. The informants believed that these social influencers are as real as offline leaders even though they only knew these social influencers in online contexts. The ability of environmental social influencers to reach and convince multiple audiences to participate and support various environmental initiatives via social media platforms made them powerful thought leaders.

 KEYWORDS. social influencers, followers, environmental awareness, pro-environmental behaviours



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Hardianshah Saleh1, Siam Jia Quan2, Muhammad Jaya Padriyamzah Bin Abdul Hamid3 


1Faculty Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

2Faculty of Science and Computer Informatic, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS.

3Wullesdorf Resources Sdn Bhd.

ABSTRACT. Seawater intrusion is known to be a major problem that influences the quality of groundwater within coastal regions globally. The groundwater table within the coastal area is usually close to the ground surface due to low topography or human development activities such as land reclamation and man-made drainage systems that keep the water table at constant low level. Electrical resistivity method is one of the geophysical methods that has been extensively used to investigate seawater intrusion due to the high electrical conductivity contrast produced by saline water. Papar, Sabah is located at the west coastal region of Sabah and is generally formed by Crocker formation and Quaternary alluvium. The sedimentary rock of Crocker Formation mainly consists of thick sandstone unit, interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale unit and shale unit. A total of Five 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) methods were carried to image and model the subsurface within the research area to investigate the possibility of seawater intrusion. The ERI results are also supported by four groundwater samples and detailed lithologies from the borehole. Interpretation of the results divided the research area into three main zones of seawater intrusion potentials. Zone 1 is considered the highest potential of seawater intrusion, Zone 2 interpreted as potential extended zone or mixing zones between seawater and fresh water and finally Zone 3 did not indicate any low resistivity or potential of seawater intrusion. The seawater intrusion map produced from this research initiated and divided the potential zones based on the occurrence of seawater in the subsurface.

KEYWORDS. Geophysics, seawater intrusion, groundwater.



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S.M. Anisuzzaman1,2* and Mohammad Hafiz Jumaidi2

1Energy Research Unit (ERU),

2Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: anis_zaman@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT: Recovery of used lubricating oil (ULO) generally comprises cleaning, drying, and adsorption in order to eliminate water, sludge, and impurities. As the ULO is one of the hazardous wastes generated in various industrial and automotive industries, it should not be used or disposed of in ways that are harmful to the environment. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of activated carbons (ACs) which are coconut AC (CAC) and rice husk AC (RHAC) in recovering the ULO. Glacial acetic acid was used in the acid treatment as it does not react with the base oils, and the ACs were substituted with the clay used in the clay treatment. The recovered oil was analysed through analytical characterizations, which are Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). FTIR analysis revealed that the properties of the untreated ULO samples improved by removing the carbonyl compounds. In terms of metal removal, RHAC had shown better performance than CAC as it gave low metal contents in AAS. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the optimum process parameters that would maximise the efficiency of the process. There are two factors that were manipulated, which are the weight of adsorbent (A) and speed of mixing (B). For CAC, the optimum value of factors A was 4.00 g while the B was set to 524.89 rpm.  Meanwhile, for RHAC, the optimum value of factors A was 2.29 g while the B was set to 4000 rpm. CAC has higher desirability with 0.83 compared to RHAC with 0.69.  

KEYWORDS: Acid clay treatment; activated carbon; optimization; response surface methodology; used lubricating oil


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S M Anisuzzaman1, Collin G. Joseph2,*, Mintshe Tan

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

2Industrial Chemistry Programme, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,

 Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: collin@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. In this study, activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from coffee waste via a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method after impregnation by zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The effect of impregnation ratio (IR) on the physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was studied. Characterizations of the generated ACs were carried out to determine the percentage of yield, moisture and ash contents, pH, surface chemistry studies and morphological attributes. The results showed that the yield of AC decreased from 41.16% to 37.12% with the increase in IR. As for moisture and ash contents, the percentage values ranged from 4.18% to 6.16% and 9.73% to 10.34% respectively. Meanwhile, the AC samples were slightly acidic with pH values varying between 6.06 and 6.56. The adsorption capacity increased from 16.8 mg/g for AC1 to 21.72 mg/g for AC4. The AC produced with an IR of 4:1 (AC4) had the highest adsorption capacity of 2,4-DCP, which was 21.72 mg/g. The maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area of the best produced AC4 was found to be 951.10 m2/g, which is by far the highest achieved in comparison with other coffee waste-derived ACs reported in the literature. N2 adsorption-desorption graph showed a Type I isotherm, indicating that the AC4 was a microporous solid with chemisorption properties. Langmuir isotherm model was found to be a better fit for the adsorption data when compared to the Freundlich isotherm model.   Pseudo-second order kinetic model was best described for the kinetic of 2,4-DCP adsorption. This proved that 2,4-DCP adsorption by AC4 was a chemisorption process. 

KEYWORDS: Activated carbon, two-stage activation, 2,4-dichlorophenol, coffee waste, adsorption 


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Ismail Abd Rahim1, Hardianshah Saleh2, Baba Musta2, Immas Janggok2 & 

Amy Natasha Arjali2

1Natural Disasters Research Unit, School of Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2Geology Program, Faculty of Sciences & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding Author: Ismail Abd Rahim1. E-mail: arismail@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT: The Zen Garden Resort and its surrounding area are part of the “Kundasang Landslide Complex” and were experiencing reactivation of old landslides on 10 April 2011. Consequently, more than 80 room units of the resort, ten buildings, homes, and local roads were destroyed, uplifted, and damaged as well as disrupted day traffic. About 500m in length and 200m in width of the slope area were slides for 25m. The vertical fall movement in the head section of the landslide is 25m. There is no direct relationship between the 2015 Ranau earthquake and with earlier rotational clay slide of the 2011 Zen Garden Resort landslide. The causing and triggering factor for landslides are generally varied and are always characterized as region-specific and site-specific. Thus, this study was conducted to unravel the triggering and causal factors for the rotational clay slide of the 2011 Zen Garden Resort landslide. The methodology consists of desk study, remote sensing study, geological mapping, geodynamic mapping, laboratory, and data analysis. This study found that the landslides were triggered by prolonged moderate to occasional heavy rainfall. The causal factors are divided into natural factors (tectonic uplift, weak materials, weathered materials, sheared or jointed materials, adversely oriented mass discontinuity or structural discontinuity, and contrast in permeability) while the artificial factor consists of excavation of the slope or its toe, cut and fill, subterranean erosion/ piping, irrigation or water leakage from utilities and deforestation or vegetation removal.

Keywords Zen Garden Resort, landslides, Kundasang landslide complex, colluvium, geodynamic, trigger and causal factors


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Volume 43 (Issue 1, March 2022)


– N. Murshid1, A.Z. Yaser1*, M. Rajin1, S. Saalah1, J. Lamaming1, M. Taliban2



– Mohd Al Mussa Ugak, Nur Aqeela Syuhadah Aji, Abu Zahrim Yaser*, Junidah Lamaming, Mariani Rajin and Sariah Saalah



– Ahmed Abubakar*1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Khadijah Musa Yaro3, Aminu Suleiman Zangina4



– Flornica A. Ahing. and N. Wid.



– Walter J. Lintangah1*, Vilaretti Atin1 and Khalid Nurul Izzah Izati1


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N. Murshid1, A.Z. Yaser1*, M. Rajin1, S. Saalah1, J. Lamaming1, M. Taliban2

1 Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
2 Persatuan Pemborong dan Peruncit Sayur Bumiputera Kundasang, Sabah
Corresponding author : Abu Zahrim Yaser , Email : zahrim@ums.edu.my
noorafizahmurshid@gmail.com (N. Murshid)

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Composting is considered agronomically, ecologically, and practically beneficial, with the end product being an organic fertilizer or soil conditioner rich in nutrients for the soil. This study aims to investigate the effects of adding chicken manure (CM) to vegetable waste (VW) and rice husk (RH) composting. This is a pioneering study on Kundasang composting, as well as addressing the vegetable waste problem in the community. The composting process was studied for 20 days in a 37-L laboratory composter reactor box with passive aeration. Four mixtures were investigated, each with a VW: RH (1:2) ratio and a different additive of CM (0%, 1%, 2.5% and 5%). The composting process’s performance shows that Mix-3 (2.5 % CM) is ideal compared to other mixtures, with the highest temperature achieved at 41ºC as early as day 1, resulting in a 28.12% organic matter (OM) loss. The OM loss value results show that Mix-3 (28.12%) > Mix-2 (26.14%) > Mix-1 (16.55%) >Mix-4 (13.33%). The maximum temperature reached was 41ºC, and the Mix-3(41.3ºC)>Mix-1(41.1ºC)>Mix-2(41.0ºC)>Mix-4(40.7ºC) and decreasing near to ambient. The reduction percentage shows Mix-3 (13.92%) > Mix-2 (13.45%) > Mix-4 (9.24%) > Mix-1 (8.93%). Thus, with the optimum addition of chicken manure, the degradation is reflected in the high moisture content reduction rate. In conclusion, using CM as an additive has a significant impact on composting VW.


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This work is supported financially by grant SDK0102-2019 from Universiti Malaysia Sabah


Mohd Al Mussa Ugak, Nur Aqeela Syuhadah Aji, Abu Zahrim Yaser*, Junidah Lamaming, Mariani Rajin and Sariah Saalah

Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: Abu Zahrim Yaser Email: zahrim@ums.edu.my

Received 15th March 2021; accepted 24th March 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Composting is a controlled biological process that converts organic matter into soil conditioner and kinetic modelling is necessary to design the composting system. The aims of this study are to determine the optimum compost mixture and turning frequency for food waste and dry leaves composting, as well as to evaluate an elemental kinetic model based on volatile solids (VS). The elemental kinetics of the process were determined using pseudo zero-, first-, second- and n-order equations. Three different feedstock mixtures were used, namely 40% FW (Mix A), 60% FW (Mix B) and 80% FW (Mix C). Four sets of experiments (TF for every 0, 1, 3, and 5 days) were conducted to investigate the turning frequency (TF). The composting process was carried out in a compost bottle for 40 days. Based on organic matter loss, Mix B and C had the highest OM loss, indicating an acceptable initial compost mixture. The turning frequency of every three days resulted in the highest organic matter loss. Kinetic analysis was performed using coefficient correlation (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and modelling efficiency (EF). Application of the second-order model resulted in good responses for compost mixture Mix B and C. Meanwhile, the n-order model successfully estimated the VS changes for the 3-days TF.

KEYWORDS. Compost, soil conditioner, modelling, second order, n-order


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Ahmed Abubakar*1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Khadijah Musa Yaro3, Aminu Suleiman Zangina4

1Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
3Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
4National Biotechnology Development Agency, North-West Zone, Katsina, P.M.B. 2140, Nigeria.
Correspondence author: Ahmed Abubakar Email: abubakar8550483@gmail.com

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Environmental protection starts with individuals, groups, and communities at large. The government at its level formulates, regulates, and enforces laws and policies governing environmental protection as well as the punishment of violators through designated legal institutions. The aim of this review is to examine the role of environmental institutions in protecting the environment in Nigeria. The findings revealed that national policies for the protection of the environment came into existence only in 1991. This study employed literature review and combed through articles published from 2000 to 2022 in the contexts of Nigeria. The objective of this study is to highlight the role that environmental institutions play in managing the environment in Nigeria. There are numerous environmental challenges in Nigeria, including air pollution, water pollution, lead poisoning, poor waste management, deforestation, desertification, wind erosion, and flooding, all of which have harmed the environment and the population. National policies for the sustainable use of the environment include the National Environmental Policy, National Policy on Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment Act, Endangered Species (Control of International Trade and Traffic) Act, and the National Drought Plan. The national regulatory bodies include the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency; the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency; the Federal Ministry of Environment; the Directorate of Petroleum Resources; the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority; the Federal Ministry of Water Resources; and the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency, among others. The study recommends that the government strengthens the national policies, laws, and regulations on the environment to meet the challenges of the 21st century, strengthens the capacity of environmental law enforcement personnel, and provides necessary logistics to aid in executing their functions. Governments should inject more funds into environmental protection and stakeholder engagement.

KEYWORDS: Environment, Law, Policy, Governance, Nigeria


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Flornica A. Ahing. and N. Wid.

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
Corresponding author : Newati, Wid Email: newati@ums.edu.my

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Chitosan, a biopolymer that consist of various properties, has multiple applications throughout industries where one of the promising applicarion of chitosan is its preservative effect. Chitosan, a bioactive natural edible coat can be considered a promising alternative to overcome the freshness of bananas during storage. Throughout this study, observations were made on weight loss, peel colour changes and titratable acidity for the effect of chitosan coating. In terms of weight loss, among four different concentration of chitosan coating solution, the 2.0% chitosan coating solution showed the lowest weight loss percentage which is 22.6% compare to others which were 1.0% (26.00%), 0.5% (26.20%) and 1.5% (34.24%) significantly. The result marked variations between the uncoated banana and coated banana at different concentrations of chitosan coating solution (ASC) which are 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00%. The peel color changes were significantly different during the first and final day of observation for each concentration. A significant variation was observed for the titratable acidity of the banana fruit where the lowest value obtained was 0.812% during coating with 2.0% chitosan coating solution while the highest titratable acidity was observed during the coating with 1.5% chitosan solution which is 2.11%. To summarize, banana coating with chitosan can decreased the weight loss of the banana fruit as well as improve the peel color changes during 12 days of storage. Besides that, banana coating with chitosan can also lower the value of titratable acidity of the banana fruit compared to uncoated bananas.

KEYWORDS: chitosan, shelf life, coating, titratable acidity.


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Walter J. Lintangah1*, Vilaretti Atin1 and Khalid Nurul Izzah Izati1

1International Tropical Forestry Program, Faculty of Tropical Forestry,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author : Walter J. Lintangah, , Email :walterjl@ums.edu.my

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many activities, including tourism and recreational activities. This study determines the  local communities’ perceptions of local recreational activities or staycation based on the natural resources in Sabah during the pandemic. Using the convenience sampling method, the questionnaire survey was distributed to respondents through social media and email. Respondents including students, government, and private sectors were from different socio-demographics. Most of them preferred recreational activities based on nature- panorama activities, followed by those who chose extreme activities such as hiking, cultural base recreation, river-based activities, leisure vacation and jungle trekking. The respondents opined that recreational activities could generate income for the state’s economy. They perceived that the assistance provided by the government could help recover the present state to its original condition. Among the elements that needed special attention and improvement were related to the safety of visitors, the cleanliness of the surrounding recreation sites, the landscape beautification and basic infrastructure facilities. Among the roles that the government could contribute to stimulating and uplifting the tourism and recreation sectors include funding and finance allocation to help the industry players, promotion and publicity, upgrading and maintenance of facilities such as infrastructures and enforcement of related laws and policies. Reviving the local tourism is promising as long as the public observe the state’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

KEYWORDS: COVID-19 Pandemic, Natural Resources-Based Recreation, Local Communities, Staycation, Tourism



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Volume 42 (Issue 2), September 2021

- Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3

– Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3

– Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc


-  Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah

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Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3
1,2,3 Department of Mathematics University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Corresponding author: Sohana Jahan, Email; sjahan.mat@du.ac.bd

Received 30th April 2021 ; accepted 22nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Iris Recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. In Iris Recognition, a person is identified by the iris region of the eye using image processing, pattern matching and the concept of neural networks. A typical Iris Recognition system involves three steps, Iris pre-processing, Iris feature extraction and Iris Classification. Most of the researchers use Daugman’s integro-differential operator and Daugman’s rubber sheet model for pre-processing. A number of feature extraction methods can be used to achieve a reasonable recognition rate. In our work we have used Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling proposed recently for feature extraction that is used directly on iris image regarded as high dimensional vector. The method uses radial basis function to select some images as centres and then projects higher dimensional vectors into a lower dimensional space using an Iterative majorization algorithm. The projection is done in such a way that data of same class projects together and also it selects the most effective features that leads to better recognition rate. This approach excludes the pre-processing that saves computation time. We have compared our approach with Principal Component Analysis and implemented on a benchmarking data MMU iris data. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is used for the classification. Numerical experiments show that Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling successfully achieves better recognition and outperforms some other approaches such as Principal Component Analysis with and without pre-processing of iris images.

KEYWORDS. Multi-Dimensional Scaling, Radial Basis Function, Iterative Majorization, Iris recognition, Biometrics, k-NN.

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