Volume 43 (Issue 1, March 2022)


– N. Murshid1, A.Z. Yaser1*, M. Rajin1, S. Saalah1, J. Lamaming1, M. Taliban2



– Mohd Al Mussa Ugak, Nur Aqeela Syuhadah Aji, Abu Zahrim Yaser*, Junidah Lamaming, Mariani Rajin and Sariah Saalah



– Ahmed Abubakar*1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Khadijah Musa Yaro3, Aminu Suleiman Zangina4



– Flornica A. Ahing. and N. Wid.



– Walter J. Lintangah1*, Vilaretti Atin1 and Khalid Nurul Izzah Izati1


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N. Murshid1, A.Z. Yaser1*, M. Rajin1, S. Saalah1, J. Lamaming1, M. Taliban2

1 Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
2 Persatuan Pemborong dan Peruncit Sayur Bumiputera Kundasang, Sabah
Corresponding author : Abu Zahrim Yaser , Email : zahrim@ums.edu.my
noorafizahmurshid@gmail.com (N. Murshid)

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Composting is considered agronomically, ecologically, and practically beneficial, with the end product being an organic fertilizer or soil conditioner rich in nutrients for the soil. This study aims to investigate the effects of adding chicken manure (CM) to vegetable waste (VW) and rice husk (RH) composting. This is a pioneering study on Kundasang composting, as well as addressing the vegetable waste problem in the community. The composting process was studied for 20 days in a 37-L laboratory composter reactor box with passive aeration. Four mixtures were investigated, each with a VW: RH (1:2) ratio and a different additive of CM (0%, 1%, 2.5% and 5%). The composting process’s performance shows that Mix-3 (2.5 % CM) is ideal compared to other mixtures, with the highest temperature achieved at 41ºC as early as day 1, resulting in a 28.12% organic matter (OM) loss. The OM loss value results show that Mix-3 (28.12%) > Mix-2 (26.14%) > Mix-1 (16.55%) >Mix-4 (13.33%). The maximum temperature reached was 41ºC, and the Mix-3(41.3ºC)>Mix-1(41.1ºC)>Mix-2(41.0ºC)>Mix-4(40.7ºC) and decreasing near to ambient. The reduction percentage shows Mix-3 (13.92%) > Mix-2 (13.45%) > Mix-4 (9.24%) > Mix-1 (8.93%). Thus, with the optimum addition of chicken manure, the degradation is reflected in the high moisture content reduction rate. In conclusion, using CM as an additive has a significant impact on composting VW.


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This work is supported financially by grant SDK0102-2019 from Universiti Malaysia Sabah


Mohd Al Mussa Ugak, Nur Aqeela Syuhadah Aji, Abu Zahrim Yaser*, Junidah Lamaming, Mariani Rajin and Sariah Saalah

Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: Abu Zahrim Yaser Email: zahrim@ums.edu.my

Received 15th March 2021; accepted 24th March 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Composting is a controlled biological process that converts organic matter into soil conditioner and kinetic modelling is necessary to design the composting system. The aims of this study are to determine the optimum compost mixture and turning frequency for food waste and dry leaves composting, as well as to evaluate an elemental kinetic model based on volatile solids (VS). The elemental kinetics of the process were determined using pseudo zero-, first-, second- and n-order equations. Three different feedstock mixtures were used, namely 40% FW (Mix A), 60% FW (Mix B) and 80% FW (Mix C). Four sets of experiments (TF for every 0, 1, 3, and 5 days) were conducted to investigate the turning frequency (TF). The composting process was carried out in a compost bottle for 40 days. Based on organic matter loss, Mix B and C had the highest OM loss, indicating an acceptable initial compost mixture. The turning frequency of every three days resulted in the highest organic matter loss. Kinetic analysis was performed using coefficient correlation (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and modelling efficiency (EF). Application of the second-order model resulted in good responses for compost mixture Mix B and C. Meanwhile, the n-order model successfully estimated the VS changes for the 3-days TF.

KEYWORDS. Compost, soil conditioner, modelling, second order, n-order


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Ahmed Abubakar*1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Khadijah Musa Yaro3, Aminu Suleiman Zangina4

1Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
3Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
4National Biotechnology Development Agency, North-West Zone, Katsina, P.M.B. 2140, Nigeria.
Correspondence author: Ahmed Abubakar Email: abubakar8550483@gmail.com

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Environmental protection starts with individuals, groups, and communities at large. The government at its level formulates, regulates, and enforces laws and policies governing environmental protection as well as the punishment of violators through designated legal institutions. The aim of this review is to examine the role of environmental institutions in protecting the environment in Nigeria. The findings revealed that national policies for the protection of the environment came into existence only in 1991. This study employed literature review and combed through articles published from 2000 to 2022 in the contexts of Nigeria. The objective of this study is to highlight the role that environmental institutions play in managing the environment in Nigeria. There are numerous environmental challenges in Nigeria, including air pollution, water pollution, lead poisoning, poor waste management, deforestation, desertification, wind erosion, and flooding, all of which have harmed the environment and the population. National policies for the sustainable use of the environment include the National Environmental Policy, National Policy on Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment Act, Endangered Species (Control of International Trade and Traffic) Act, and the National Drought Plan. The national regulatory bodies include the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency; the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency; the Federal Ministry of Environment; the Directorate of Petroleum Resources; the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority; the Federal Ministry of Water Resources; and the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency, among others. The study recommends that the government strengthens the national policies, laws, and regulations on the environment to meet the challenges of the 21st century, strengthens the capacity of environmental law enforcement personnel, and provides necessary logistics to aid in executing their functions. Governments should inject more funds into environmental protection and stakeholder engagement.

KEYWORDS: Environment, Law, Policy, Governance, Nigeria


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Flornica A. Ahing. and N. Wid.

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
Corresponding author : Newati, Wid Email: newati@ums.edu.my

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Chitosan, a biopolymer that consist of various properties, has multiple applications throughout industries where one of the promising applicarion of chitosan is its preservative effect. Chitosan, a bioactive natural edible coat can be considered a promising alternative to overcome the freshness of bananas during storage. Throughout this study, observations were made on weight loss, peel colour changes and titratable acidity for the effect of chitosan coating. In terms of weight loss, among four different concentration of chitosan coating solution, the 2.0% chitosan coating solution showed the lowest weight loss percentage which is 22.6% compare to others which were 1.0% (26.00%), 0.5% (26.20%) and 1.5% (34.24%) significantly. The result marked variations between the uncoated banana and coated banana at different concentrations of chitosan coating solution (ASC) which are 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00%. The peel color changes were significantly different during the first and final day of observation for each concentration. A significant variation was observed for the titratable acidity of the banana fruit where the lowest value obtained was 0.812% during coating with 2.0% chitosan coating solution while the highest titratable acidity was observed during the coating with 1.5% chitosan solution which is 2.11%. To summarize, banana coating with chitosan can decreased the weight loss of the banana fruit as well as improve the peel color changes during 12 days of storage. Besides that, banana coating with chitosan can also lower the value of titratable acidity of the banana fruit compared to uncoated bananas.

KEYWORDS: chitosan, shelf life, coating, titratable acidity.


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Walter J. Lintangah1*, Vilaretti Atin1 and Khalid Nurul Izzah Izati1

1International Tropical Forestry Program, Faculty of Tropical Forestry,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author : Walter J. Lintangah, , Email :walterjl@ums.edu.my

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many activities, including tourism and recreational activities. This study determines the  local communities’ perceptions of local recreational activities or staycation based on the natural resources in Sabah during the pandemic. Using the convenience sampling method, the questionnaire survey was distributed to respondents through social media and email. Respondents including students, government, and private sectors were from different socio-demographics. Most of them preferred recreational activities based on nature- panorama activities, followed by those who chose extreme activities such as hiking, cultural base recreation, river-based activities, leisure vacation and jungle trekking. The respondents opined that recreational activities could generate income for the state’s economy. They perceived that the assistance provided by the government could help recover the present state to its original condition. Among the elements that needed special attention and improvement were related to the safety of visitors, the cleanliness of the surrounding recreation sites, the landscape beautification and basic infrastructure facilities. Among the roles that the government could contribute to stimulating and uplifting the tourism and recreation sectors include funding and finance allocation to help the industry players, promotion and publicity, upgrading and maintenance of facilities such as infrastructures and enforcement of related laws and policies. Reviving the local tourism is promising as long as the public observe the state’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

KEYWORDS: COVID-19 Pandemic, Natural Resources-Based Recreation, Local Communities, Staycation, Tourism



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Volume 42 (Issue 2), September 2021

- Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3

– Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3

– Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc


-  Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah

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Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3
1,2,3 Department of Mathematics University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Corresponding author: Sohana Jahan, Email; sjahan.mat@du.ac.bd

Received 30th April 2021 ; accepted 22nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Iris Recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. In Iris Recognition, a person is identified by the iris region of the eye using image processing, pattern matching and the concept of neural networks. A typical Iris Recognition system involves three steps, Iris pre-processing, Iris feature extraction and Iris Classification. Most of the researchers use Daugman’s integro-differential operator and Daugman’s rubber sheet model for pre-processing. A number of feature extraction methods can be used to achieve a reasonable recognition rate. In our work we have used Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling proposed recently for feature extraction that is used directly on iris image regarded as high dimensional vector. The method uses radial basis function to select some images as centres and then projects higher dimensional vectors into a lower dimensional space using an Iterative majorization algorithm. The projection is done in such a way that data of same class projects together and also it selects the most effective features that leads to better recognition rate. This approach excludes the pre-processing that saves computation time. We have compared our approach with Principal Component Analysis and implemented on a benchmarking data MMU iris data. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is used for the classification. Numerical experiments show that Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling successfully achieves better recognition and outperforms some other approaches such as Principal Component Analysis with and without pre-processing of iris images.

KEYWORDS. Multi-Dimensional Scaling, Radial Basis Function, Iterative Majorization, Iris recognition, Biometrics, k-NN.

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Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah
Quality and Environmental Assessment Unit, Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), 6, Persiaran
Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author. Email: aainaa.syahirah@mpob.gov.my

Received 4th May 2021 ; accepted 15nd November 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Cooking oils are used for daily cooking as well as salad dressing, in processed food, and other various uses. The physico-chemical properties of cooking oils can affect the quality of foods and hence must be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of palm-based cooking oils (refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein). The analyses were conducted on a total of 20 different brands of cooking oil packed in plastic pouches, which were randomly chosen from a local market. The physico-chemical properties of the cooking oils investigated include moisture and impurities (MI), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), slip melting point (SMP), Lovibond colour, and free fatty acid (FFA). The properties were compared with known standards for refined oils such as Malaysian Standard and Codex Alimentarius Standard. Analysis showed that MI, IV, and SMP of all brands were within the requirements set by Malaysian Standard for RBD palm olein. The PV, Lovibond colour, and FFA values of several brands deviated from the Malaysian Standard. Meanwhile, the PV and FFA of all brands of the cooking oil tested were within the value designated by the Codex Standards. The physico-chemical properties of RBD palm olein cooking oils tested in this study were of acceptable and good quality and are considered suitable for consumption. The quality of cooking oil should be regularly monitored to avoid the use of adulterated oil.

KEYWORDS. RBD palm olein, cooking oil, physico-chemical properties, plastic pouch packed

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Fadzlina Abdullah1*, Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli1, Fumiya Niikura2 And Zulina Abd. Maurad1
1Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43 000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Functional Material Science Research Laboratory, Lion Corporation, 2-1 Hirai 7-Chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 132-0035, Japan. *Corresponding author : fadzlina@mpob.gov.my

Received 8th May 2021 ; accepted 18nd October 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Palm-based methyl ester sulphonate (MES) is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable resources by sulphonation of palm methyl ester with sulphur trioxide and can be used as an alternative to the conventional linear alkylbenzenesulphonate. MES has been shown to possess favourable environmental characteristics, water hardness tolerance, with excellent detergency and foaming properties that are useful in detergent industry. Due to its great potential as surfactant in consumer products, it is crucial to determine its physical properties to protect consumer safety and the ecosystem. Physical properties are important aspects of a chemical because they play a significant role in determining its possible applications. Therefore, this study aims to determine the physical properties of various homologues of palm-based MES, such as C12-, C14-, C16-, and C16:18MES. The selected physical properties included physical appearance (form, colour, and odour), functional groups via Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, density, melting point, and flammability. The sulphonation process to produce MES was confirmed through sulphonationcation interactions from the FTIR spectra. A better understanding of the properties and applicability of MES in different areas can be assessed through the study of their physical properties. Information on these properties is important, whereby the specifications of palm-based MES can be used to find the best formulation for its applications and support the regulatory requirements of importing countries, e.g., Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACh), to facilitate market penetration.

KEYWORDS.Anionic surfactant; Palm-based; methyl ester sulphonate; Detergent; properties.

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Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3, Handry Mujih4, Geofarry Gunsalam4Dasini4, Ezron Gerald5, Rayzigerson Rodney Chai1, Mohd Fadil6, Venly6, Federica Karolus6

1Institute of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Tropical Forestry, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
3Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
4Herbarium, Botany Section, Reseacrh and Education Division, P.O. Box 10626, 88806, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
5Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
6Danum Valley Field Centre, Block 3, Ground Floor, MDLD 3286/3287, Fajar Centre, 91112, Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia. Email: rasyidahj@yahoo.com

Received 9th Julai 2021 ; accepted 15nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. In the vicinity of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, a study was conducted to determine the plant community and its composition in the habitat of Rafflesia sp. and its host, Tetrastigma sp. A total of 5 circular-shaped plots each with a fixed radius of 20 meters, were located around Kinabalu Park, namely in Losou Podi, Losou Minunsud, Sayap Substation, Langanan and Gansurai. The Rafflesia species detected in Kinabalu Park during the present study were Rafflesia pricei and R. keithii. Overall, 19 Rafflesia individuals were detected, which comprised of 3 flowers and 16 buds. A total of 20 scars from former dead flowers and buds were obtained on the host, where they possessed an average diameter of 2.2-4.8 cm from the five plots. There were 778 individuals recorded for plant community, belonging to 111 genera, 53 families and 250 species. The total tree density was 1238 individuals/ha, where the family Lauraceae (11.05%) had the highest individuals followed by Annonaceae (8.61%). Although the species Baccaurea lanceolata were found in all study plots, the species Xantophyllum macrophyllum has the most individuals detected (3.60%) in the plant community habitats. The value of the Shannon-Wiener Index was H’=3.23 and the Evenness Index is low, E=0.10. The percentage of family similarity between plots was high (SBC=70.19–48.23%), but the percentage of species similarity between plots was very low (SJ=4.31–1.54%). This study shows that both the species of Xanthophyllum macrophyllum and Baccaurea lanceolata have a relationship with the habitat ofRafflesia in Kinabalu Park, as both species were located nearest to the Rafflesia’s host. Moreover, these two species were seen to be well associated with Tetrastigma since the Tetrastigma was observed to climb several trees of these species in the plot.

KEYWORDS. Ecology, Kinabalu Park, plant community, Rafflesia, Tetrastigma.

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Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc
a Nextgreen Pulp and Paper Sdn Bhd, R&D Department, Menara LGB, Jalan Wan Kadir 1, Taman Tun Dr Ismail, 60000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
b Department of Forestry Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97000 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
c Department of Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *Corresponding author: johnkeen@upm.edu.my

Received 31 st July 2021 ; accepted 4nd October 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Paper waste is one of many wastes produced by men leading to more landfill spaces to dispose of them. Improper management of wastes can become a nuisance and can become a source of pollution and environmental degradation. This research aimed to determine the effect of different paper wastes (white paper, newspaper, and brown paper) as bedding materials on the efficiency of vermicomposting and nutrient content of the vermicompost. Vermicompost substrates (cow dung, vegetable waste and waste paper) were digested using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) for up to 68 days and were assessed across physical (temperature and weight loss) and chemical parameters (pH, macro- and micro-nutrients content). The vermicompost gave pH values ranging from 7.9 to 9.9 for different paper beddings. The temperature in all vermicompost piles averaged 26 to 34˚C, while
weight losses were recorded at 26 to 38%. Chemical analyses of all vermicompost substrates showed no significant difference for N, P, Fe, Cu and Mg contents. In contrast, the C:N ratio, K, Na, Ca, Zn and Mn of the vermicompost products were significantly different (P<0.05). Although vermicomposting using newspaper bedding recorded the shortest period to mature with most nutrient contents suitable for application on plants, the Cu content was too high, suggesting that the amount of newspaper used as bedding should be reduced and substituted with other organic substances such as crop residues. Vermicomposting using paper wastes as beddings for earthworm (E. eugeniae) shows a good potential of producing vermicompost that can be used as a soil amendment.

KEYWORDS: paper wastes, beddings, Eudrilus eugeniae, vermicompost, nutrient content

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Volume 42 (Issue 1), March 2021

– Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

– Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 , Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

– Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

– Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

– Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

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Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 ,

Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2GRISM Innovative Solutions, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Anurag University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500088, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: awangbono@gmail.com

**Corresponding author. E-mail: hardyvai14@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Fragrant rice is known to contain the aromatic compound of 2-Acetyl Pyrroline (2-AP). This compound has been known as a major compound that gives fragrant characteristics in rice. However, this compound is volatile and easily escapes from the rice upon the drying process. In order to recover the release of 2-AP from rice upon drying, a packed bed adsorption system is employed using treated agricultural waste as a solid adsorbent. The experimental adsorption study in a batch mode for 2-AP onto treated rice husk char (TRHC) was used as a case study for this present work. Influences of three operational parameters towards the dynamic adsorption of 2-AP onto TRHC in a packed bed column were investigated by measuring the breakthrough and saturation time and mass transfer zone. This study suggests the possibility of treated agricultural waste as an alternative to capture the lost 2-AP during the paddy drying process.

KEYWORDS. Adsorption; Aromatic rice; Breakthrough curve; Treated rice husk; Simulation



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  • Sarmento, C. G. D. O. (2021). Adsorption of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline (2-AP) by Using Rice Husk Chars (Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia.
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Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

1Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division (AOTD), Malaysian Palm Oil Board,

6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

*Correspomdimg author. Email: siti.afida@mpob.gov.my


ABSTRACT. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is the concentration of surfactants above which micelles are formed. The effects of CMC of methyl ester sulfonates (MES) on ecotoxicological behaviour of freshwater organisms in predicting the risk levels contributed from the surfactant used were determined. The surface tension of palm-based MES with various carbon chain lengths (C12, C14 and C16) was measured to determine the CMC. Ecotoxicity tests were conducted on three different aquatic organisms: green algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata), freshwater crustacean (Daphnia magna) and freshwater fish (Tilapia nilotica). The effective concentration of MES that caused 50% fish mortality (LC50), crustacean immobilization (EC50) and algae inhibition (EC50) was determined. Through surface tension analyses, the CMC obtained for MES C12, C14 and C16 was 1000 mg/L, 900 mg/L and 12 mg/L, respectively. The LC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 were 391 mg/L, 22.6 mg/L and 12.6 mg/L, respectively, in fish. The crustacean EC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 were >100 mg/L, 77.6 mg/L, and 1.15 mg/L. Meanwhile, algae EC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 was 541 mg/L, 399 mg/L and >10 mg/L, respectively. Relative comparison showed that D. magna was observed to be more sensitive compared to R. subcapitata and T. nilotica towards MES of the same chain length. A linear relationship was observed between CMC and ecotoxicity values. The lower the CMC value, the lower is the LC50 or EC50 value and the surfactant becomes more toxic. It is suggested that the CMC value can be used as a toxicity indicator for anionic surfactant by considering that the EC50 value of a surfactant will be reached before its CMC value.

KEYWORDS: CMC, Ecotoxicity, Aquatic organisms, Environment


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Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, Jengka Campus,

26400 Bandar Tun Abdul Razak Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Email: nursyamimizainudin@uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Ascorbic acid, also known as Vitamin C cannot be synthesized by humans. Ascorbic acid is commonly found in a variety of vegetables and fruits such as mangoes, oranges, broccolis and lettuce. Hence, vegetables and fruits become the main sources of ascorbic acid to meet dietary intake. The differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) technique using glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as a working electrode and phosphate buffer at pH 4.2 as a supporting electrolyte has been proposed for ascorbic acid determination in natural and commercial fruit juices. The optimum instrumental conditions for electroanalytical determination of ascorbic acid by the proposed DPASV technique were initial potential (Ei) = 0 V, end potential (Ef)= 0.8 V, accumulation time (tacc) = 60 s, scan rate (v) = 0.125 V/s and pulse amplitude = 0.150 V. The anodic peak appeared at 0.3598 V. The curve was linear from 0.028 to 1.703 mM (R2=0.9999) with a detection limit of 0.0114 mM. The precisions in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.30%, 0.50% and 0.06%, respectively. The ruggedness of the proposed DPASV technique was tested with statistical F-test. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 73.65±1.70% to 101.93±1.65% were obtained for three different known concentrations of AA in the fruit juice samples. It can be concluded that the proposed technique is precise, accurate, rugged, low cost, fast and has the potential to be an alternative method for routine analysis of ascorbic acid in natural and commercial fruit juices.

KEYWORDS: Ascorbic Acid, Commercial Fruit Juice, Glassy Carbon Electrode, Voltammetry



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Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

1Geology Program, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Email: babamus@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. A total of fifty-three (53) sediment samples were collected from Usukan coastal beach to study the potential of pollution due to heavy metals in the marine ecosystem. The sediment samples were collected along the coastal beach using a core sampler. The ICP-OES analysis was used to identify the concentration of heavy metals in the marine sediment samples. The results of pH analysis showed the increase of pH from 5.69 to 8.48 from inland into the sea. The lowest moisture content was 4.99%, whereas the highest was 48.75%. The organic matter ranges from 0.30 to 6.73%. The sediment texture varies from sandy, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam texture. The decreasing rank ing order of heavy metals concentration is Fe (4476-29829 ppm) followed by Al (5803-8524 ppm) and Mn (103-504 ppm), which are still within the background values and standard limits. The assessment of Fe, Al and Mn contamination in sediment samples was performed by comparing with the allowable range of average background values and the standard limits from Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) in marine sediment. In conclusion, the results of quality assessment using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and pollution load index (PLI) showed that the sediment from Usukan beach has a very low contamination level that causes only mild pollution.

KEYWORDS. Geochemistry, Heavy Metal, Sediment Quality, Marine Environment



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Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

* Corresponding author: Suzelawati Zenian

Email: suzela@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Image enhancement is a significant field in image processing. This paper proposes an enhancement method based on an S-sharp function of grayscale transformation and neighborhood information. Firstly, a function is established based on the sine function. Then, the image threshold is added into the function. Finally, the result grayscales are modified by parameter, where parameter is determined by the image pixel neighborhood information. In general, in the result image, each pixel grayscale is determined by both the sine function with threshold and the parameter . In the experiment results, the NIEM method (we proposed) achieves better performance than the comparison algorithms. It gets the smallest MSE and the highest PSNR, SSIM. In image Lena test, MSE value:330.8151, PSNR value:22.9350, and SSIM value: 0.9451. In image Pout test, MSE value:132.0988, PSNR value:26.9218, and SSIM value: 0.9604.

KEYWORDS. Image enhancement, S-sharp function, Standard deviation, Threshold.



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Volume 41 (Issue 2, September 2020)

The Composition of Chitin, Chitosan and its Derivatives in the Context of preparation and Usability – A Review.
- Syaheera Md Zin1, Adnin Awalludin1, Newati Wid1, Kamarulzaman Abd. Kadir2 and Mohd Sani Sarjadi1,*

Estimating Mangrove Above-ground Biomass (AGB) in Sabah, Malaysia Using Field Measurements, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Landsat Data
- Charissa Jasmine Wong1, Daniel James1, Normah Awang Besar1 and Mui-How Phua1*

Quantifying Aboveground Biomass over 50-Ha Tropical Forest Dynamic Plot in Pasoh, Malaysia Using LiDAR and Census Data
- Hamdan Omar1*, Muhamad Afizzul Misman1  and Yao Tze Leong1

Tourist Satisfaction at Nature-based Tourism Destination around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
- Talib, H.

Tourist Satisfaction Dimension in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia
- Timothy Ajeng Mereng[1], Hamimah Talib1* and Jennifer Chan Kim Lian[2]
Download FULL Journal HERE


Syaheera Md Zin1, Adnin Awalludin1, Newati Wid1, Kamarulzaman Abd. Kadir2 and Mohd Sani Sarjadi1*

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Enviro Clean Energy Sdn. Bhd. Suite, Level 5, Bangunan Perkim, No. 150, Jalan Ipoh, 51200, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. The demand for chitosan polymer in domestic and industrial use is increasingly rising. The applications are widely used in the fields of nutrition, cosmetics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, water treatment and agriculture. Normally, the preparation of chitin comes from a bio-waste source and requires three chemical processes including demineralisation, deproteinisation, and discolouration. Meanwhile, the preparation of chitosan from chitin is through the process of deacetylation. The production of chitosan and its derivatives have covered various fields, including synthetic polymers. It has also become a medium and alternative material helping to solve many problems including being able to save time, cost and energy in the production of a material. Then, there will be a positive impact on environmental sustainability and biomedical engineering. The chitin derivatives resulting from deacetylation of chitosan are also flexible enough to be lysosomal enzymes, which can be used as carriers of active drug substances in the body system. Various efforts and research have been carried out on the development of chitosan-based polymeric materials, in particular organic polymers. Chitosanbased polymers can be used as an alternative to replace petroleum and natural gas resources. Besides, it is easy to dispose of, degrades quickly, has a short shelf life and is environmentally friendly. It is proven as many previous reports and studies on the synthesis, characteristics and use of these polymers around the world. The purpose of this review is to explain the properties, methods of preparation and use of chitin, chitosan and its derivatives.

KEYWORDS. Chitosan, chitin, deacetylation, polymer


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