Volume 42 (Issue 2), September 2021

- Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3

– Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3

– Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc


Volume 42 (Issue 1), March 2021

– Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

– Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 , Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

– Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

– Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

– Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

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Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 ,

Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2GRISM Innovative Solutions, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Anurag University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500088, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: awangbono@gmail.com

**Corresponding author. E-mail: hardyvai14@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Fragrant rice is known to contain the aromatic compound of 2-Acetyl Pyrroline (2-AP). This compound has been known as a major compound that gives fragrant characteristics in rice. However, this compound is volatile and easily escapes from the rice upon the drying process. In order to recover the release of 2-AP from rice upon drying, a packed bed adsorption system is employed using treated agricultural waste as a solid adsorbent. The experimental adsorption study in a batch mode for 2-AP onto treated rice husk char (TRHC) was used as a case study for this present work. Influences of three operational parameters towards the dynamic adsorption of 2-AP onto TRHC in a packed bed column were investigated by measuring the breakthrough and saturation time and mass transfer zone. This study suggests the possibility of treated agricultural waste as an alternative to capture the lost 2-AP during the paddy drying process.

KEYWORDS. Adsorption; Aromatic rice; Breakthrough curve; Treated rice husk; Simulation



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Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

1Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division (AOTD), Malaysian Palm Oil Board,

6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

*Correspomdimg author. Email: siti.afida@mpob.gov.my


ABSTRACT. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is the concentration of surfactants above which micelles are formed. The effects of CMC of methyl ester sulfonates (MES) on ecotoxicological behaviour of freshwater organisms in predicting the risk levels contributed from the surfactant used were determined. The surface tension of palm-based MES with various carbon chain lengths (C12, C14 and C16) was measured to determine the CMC. Ecotoxicity tests were conducted on three different aquatic organisms: green algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata), freshwater crustacean (Daphnia magna) and freshwater fish (Tilapia nilotica). The effective concentration of MES that caused 50% fish mortality (LC50), crustacean immobilization (EC50) and algae inhibition (EC50) was determined. Through surface tension analyses, the CMC obtained for MES C12, C14 and C16 was 1000 mg/L, 900 mg/L and 12 mg/L, respectively. The LC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 were 391 mg/L, 22.6 mg/L and 12.6 mg/L, respectively, in fish. The crustacean EC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 were >100 mg/L, 77.6 mg/L, and 1.15 mg/L. Meanwhile, algae EC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 was 541 mg/L, 399 mg/L and >10 mg/L, respectively. Relative comparison showed that D. magna was observed to be more sensitive compared to R. subcapitata and T. nilotica towards MES of the same chain length. A linear relationship was observed between CMC and ecotoxicity values. The lower the CMC value, the lower is the LC50 or EC50 value and the surfactant becomes more toxic. It is suggested that the CMC value can be used as a toxicity indicator for anionic surfactant by considering that the EC50 value of a surfactant will be reached before its CMC value.

KEYWORDS: CMC, Ecotoxicity, Aquatic organisms, Environment


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Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, Jengka Campus,

26400 Bandar Tun Abdul Razak Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Email: nursyamimizainudin@uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Ascorbic acid, also known as Vitamin C cannot be synthesized by humans. Ascorbic acid is commonly found in a variety of vegetables and fruits such as mangoes, oranges, broccolis and lettuce. Hence, vegetables and fruits become the main sources of ascorbic acid to meet dietary intake. The differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) technique using glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as a working electrode and phosphate buffer at pH 4.2 as a supporting electrolyte has been proposed for ascorbic acid determination in natural and commercial fruit juices. The optimum instrumental conditions for electroanalytical determination of ascorbic acid by the proposed DPASV technique were initial potential (Ei) = 0 V, end potential (Ef)= 0.8 V, accumulation time (tacc) = 60 s, scan rate (v) = 0.125 V/s and pulse amplitude = 0.150 V. The anodic peak appeared at 0.3598 V. The curve was linear from 0.028 to 1.703 mM (R2=0.9999) with a detection limit of 0.0114 mM. The precisions in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.30%, 0.50% and 0.06%, respectively. The ruggedness of the proposed DPASV technique was tested with statistical F-test. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 73.65±1.70% to 101.93±1.65% were obtained for three different known concentrations of AA in the fruit juice samples. It can be concluded that the proposed technique is precise, accurate, rugged, low cost, fast and has the potential to be an alternative method for routine analysis of ascorbic acid in natural and commercial fruit juices.

KEYWORDS: Ascorbic Acid, Commercial Fruit Juice, Glassy Carbon Electrode, Voltammetry



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Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

1Geology Program, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Email: babamus@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. A total of fifty-three (53) sediment samples were collected from Usukan coastal beach to study the potential of pollution due to heavy metals in the marine ecosystem. The sediment samples were collected along the coastal beach using a core sampler. The ICP-OES analysis was used to identify the concentration of heavy metals in the marine sediment samples. The results of pH analysis showed the increase of pH from 5.69 to 8.48 from inland into the sea. The lowest moisture content was 4.99%, whereas the highest was 48.75%. The organic matter ranges from 0.30 to 6.73%. The sediment texture varies from sandy, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam texture. The decreasing rank ing order of heavy metals concentration is Fe (4476-29829 ppm) followed by Al (5803-8524 ppm) and Mn (103-504 ppm), which are still within the background values and standard limits. The assessment of Fe, Al and Mn contamination in sediment samples was performed by comparing with the allowable range of average background values and the standard limits from Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) in marine sediment. In conclusion, the results of quality assessment using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and pollution load index (PLI) showed that the sediment from Usukan beach has a very low contamination level that causes only mild pollution.

KEYWORDS. Geochemistry, Heavy Metal, Sediment Quality, Marine Environment



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Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

* Corresponding author: Suzelawati Zenian

Email: suzela@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Image enhancement is a significant field in image processing. This paper proposes an enhancement method based on an S-sharp function of grayscale transformation and neighborhood information. Firstly, a function is established based on the sine function. Then, the image threshold is added into the function. Finally, the result grayscales are modified by parameter, where parameter is determined by the image pixel neighborhood information. In general, in the result image, each pixel grayscale is determined by both the sine function with threshold and the parameter . In the experiment results, the NIEM method (we proposed) achieves better performance than the comparison algorithms. It gets the smallest MSE and the highest PSNR, SSIM. In image Lena test, MSE value:330.8151, PSNR value:22.9350, and SSIM value: 0.9451. In image Pout test, MSE value:132.0988, PSNR value:26.9218, and SSIM value: 0.9604.

KEYWORDS. Image enhancement, S-sharp function, Standard deviation, Threshold.



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Volume 41 (Issue 2, September 2020)

The Composition of Chitin, Chitosan and its Derivatives in the Context of preparation and Usability – A Review.
- Syaheera Md Zin1, Adnin Awalludin1, Newati Wid1, Kamarulzaman Abd. Kadir2 and Mohd Sani Sarjadi1,*

Estimating Mangrove Above-ground Biomass (AGB) in Sabah, Malaysia Using Field Measurements, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Landsat Data
- Charissa Jasmine Wong1, Daniel James1, Normah Awang Besar1 and Mui-How Phua1*

Quantifying Aboveground Biomass over 50-Ha Tropical Forest Dynamic Plot in Pasoh, Malaysia Using LiDAR and Census Data
- Hamdan Omar1*, Muhamad Afizzul Misman1  and Yao Tze Leong1

Tourist Satisfaction at Nature-based Tourism Destination around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
- Talib, H.

Tourist Satisfaction Dimension in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia
- Timothy Ajeng Mereng[1], Hamimah Talib1* and Jennifer Chan Kim Lian[2]
Download FULL Journal HERE


Syaheera Md Zin1, Adnin Awalludin1, Newati Wid1, Kamarulzaman Abd. Kadir2 and Mohd Sani Sarjadi1*

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Enviro Clean Energy Sdn. Bhd. Suite, Level 5, Bangunan Perkim, No. 150, Jalan Ipoh, 51200, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. The demand for chitosan polymer in domestic and industrial use is increasingly rising. The applications are widely used in the fields of nutrition, cosmetics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, water treatment and agriculture. Normally, the preparation of chitin comes from a bio-waste source and requires three chemical processes including demineralisation, deproteinisation, and discolouration. Meanwhile, the preparation of chitosan from chitin is through the process of deacetylation. The production of chitosan and its derivatives have covered various fields, including synthetic polymers. It has also become a medium and alternative material helping to solve many problems including being able to save time, cost and energy in the production of a material. Then, there will be a positive impact on environmental sustainability and biomedical engineering. The chitin derivatives resulting from deacetylation of chitosan are also flexible enough to be lysosomal enzymes, which can be used as carriers of active drug substances in the body system. Various efforts and research have been carried out on the development of chitosan-based polymeric materials, in particular organic polymers. Chitosanbased polymers can be used as an alternative to replace petroleum and natural gas resources. Besides, it is easy to dispose of, degrades quickly, has a short shelf life and is environmentally friendly. It is proven as many previous reports and studies on the synthesis, characteristics and use of these polymers around the world. The purpose of this review is to explain the properties, methods of preparation and use of chitin, chitosan and its derivatives.

KEYWORDS. Chitosan, chitin, deacetylation, polymer


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Charissa J. Wong1, Daniel James1, Normah A. Besar1 and Mui-How Phua1*

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author; Mui-How Phua, Telephone Number: +60 (0)88 320000,
Email; pmh@ums.edu.my


ABSTRACT. Mangroves are one of the most productive forest ecosystems and play an important role in carbon storage. We examined the use of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to estimate mangrove Above-ground Biomass (AGB) in Sabah, Malaysia. SRTM-DEM can be considered as Canopy Height Model (CHM) because of the flat coastal topography. Nevertheless, we also introduced ground elevation correction using a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generated with GIS and coastal profile data. We mapped the mangrove forest cover using Landsat imagery acquired in 2015 with the supervised classification method (Kappa coefficient of 0.81). Regression analyses of field AGB and the CHMs resulted in an estimation model with the corrected CHM as the best predictor (R2: 0.73) and cross-validated Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 19.70 Mg ha-1 (RMSE%: 11.60). Our study showed Sabah has a mangrove cover of 268,631.91 ha with a total AGB of 44,163,207.07 Mg in 2015. This substantial amount of carbon storage should be monitored over time and managed as part of the climate change mitigation strategy.

KEYWORD. Mangroves, SRTM-DEM, Landsat, Above-ground Carbon, Borneo.



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Hamdan Omar*, Muhamad Afizzul Misman and Yao Tze Leong

Forestry and Environment Division,
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding author : Hamdan Omar, Phone No.; +603-62797200,
Email : hamdanomar@frim.gov.my

ABSTRACT. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) instruments have been widely used for quantification of forest biomass. This study investigated the relationships between LiDAR data and aboveground biomass (AGB). The study area is located at the 50-ha dynamic plot in a primary forest area of the Pasoh Forest Reserve, a lowland dipterocarp forest, a type of evergreen tropical moist forest. A number of variables have been produced from the LiDAR metrics. These variables were correlated with AGB that were derived from census data. The study found that the CHM and a few matrices are the best predictors for AGB and therefore used for the estimation of AGB in the entire study area. The estimated AGB ranged from 52 to 718 Mg ha-1, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of about 59 Mg ha-1. The study suggests that the AGB estimates produced by this study are the most accurate – with an accuracy of 83% based on the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) – as compared to other remotely-sensed based estimates in the study area.

KEYWORD. Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS); 50-ha dynamic plot; LiDAR; biomass


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Hamimah Talib1*
1 Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Corresponding author; Hamimah Talib, Cell; +6016 9980701, Email; hamima@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has been famed as Nature Resort City where nature-based destinations in and around the city have been the major tourist attractions. Nonetheless, the question whether the visitors are satisfied with their experience at the major nature-based tourism destination or otherwise is still vague. The purpose of this study is to understand the recreational experience and satisfaction of tourist in selected nature-based tourism sites in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. A mixedmethod approach incorporating quantitative data derived using Driver’s Recreation Experience Preference Scale, and qualitative data using Herzberg’s Critical Incident Technique were deployed. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive non-probability sampling with the participation of 240 tourists. Factor analysis was run on the quantitative dataset to derive the major outcome which is the set of profile on tourist recreational experience. While content analysis was conducted on the qualitative dataset to derive explanation for tourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Triangulation between the two types of datasets strengthens the major finding which is the tourist satisfaction in nature-based tourism destination around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The finding of this study is crucial for satisfaction enhancement and critical for identification of areas to be improved, subsequently solutions to be recommended.

KEYWORDS. Tourist Satisfaction, Nature-Based Tourism



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Timothy Ajeng Mereng1, Hamimah Talib1* and Jennifer Chan Kim Lian2
1 Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
2 Borneo Tourism Research Centre, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Corresponding author; Hamimah Talib, Cell; +6016 9980701, Email; hamima@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to identify the tourist satisfaction dimensions in Kinabalu Park as a World Heritage Site, to come out with the tourist satisfaction indicators for responsible rural tourism framework at Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia, in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimension. One of the data sources to achieve this aim is the in-depth interview session with the tourist in Kinabalu Park, specifically the mountain climbers. The interview was conducted with Herzberg’s Critical Incident Technique (CIT), which is a method that asks the respondents to recall their exceptionally good feeling as well as their exceptionally bad feeling during their experience in Kinabalu Park. The data were analyzed thematically based on Driver’s Recreation Experience Preference (REP) scale to identify the tourists’ satisfaction dimension. Our study found that “scenery enjoyment” was the most prevalent domain for a satisfying experience or the source of good feeling. Along with the “scenery enjoyment”, there were other three emerging experience domains that could contribute to understanding the tourist satisfaction dimensions in Kinabalu Park.

KEYWORDS. Tourist Satisfaction Dimension, Kinabalu Park



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Volume 41 (Issue 1), March 2020

– Sk Amir Hossain1*, Chanchal Mandal1, Toufiq Ahmed1 & S.M Rifat Rahman1

Dayang Nur Sakinah Musa*, Rebecca Mishallyne Afat, Melissa Sharmah Gilbert, Kamlisa Uni Kamlun

- Rosalam Sarbatly1, Farhana Abd Lahin2*, Chel-Ken Chiam3

– Tan Chun Hung 1 , Normah Awang Besar 1* , Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh 2 , Maznah Mahali 1 , Nissanto Masri 3


- Sabrina Soloi1*, Adib Afifi Mohammad1

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Sk Amir Hossain1 *, Chanchal Mandal1, Toufiq Ahmed1 & S.M Rifat Rahman1
1Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh
* Corresponding author: isti_99@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. Conventional methods for covalent immobilization of proteins often result in denaturation due to chemical treatments. However, proteins immobilized at microbial cell surfaces by regular cellular processes could be bound covalently to the cell wall without being exposed to chemical treatment. Yeasts display systems provide several advantages over bacterial system. The secretory and post-translational pathway in yeast, are similar to those of higher eukaryotes which established them as better hosts for production of eukaryotic proteins. The expression of recombinant proteins immobilized at the cell surface ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae has now been practiced for the last two decades. Although different surface display systems have been made for specific purposes, the system with broad applicability has not been developed so far. Most of the vectors constructed for surface display of recombinant proteins in yeast so far were created for single-use in particular case with ubiquitous laboratory plasmids that were not optimized for this purpose. Therefore, the construction of a new set of plasmids with optimized genetic cassette is still in demand. An optimized genetic cassette should allow easy and simple insertion of any gene of interest, with regulated and easily controlled expression level. In this review, we have tried to make a detailed study on all the genetic components used in successful yeast display systems till now in order to provide a good knowledge which will help the future researchers of this field to design an optimized genetic cassette which would be used for industrial scale application.

KEYWORDS: Yeast display system, yeast cell wall proteins, genetic cassette and recombinant protein.

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Dayang Nur Sakinah Musa*, Rebecca Mishallyne Afat, Melissa Sharmah Gilbert, Kamlisa Uni Kamlun

Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author : dns.m@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Peat composes of organic matter and easily drying out during the dry season. This situation will result in a smouldering fire in peat swamp forest especially with the help of El-Nino phenomenon and eventually will destroy home for endangered species such as Orangutan. It is important in order to study the effect of forest fire on peat thermal properties. The study was conducted in Binsuluk Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia, The aims of this study were to measure the heat of content and burning time of peat at a different level and to find the relationship of the heat of content in Binsuluk Forest Reserve. Samples of burnt peat were taken using an auger at 1.5 m, 2.0 m, 2.5 m and 3.0 m depths. The peat samples were tested for heat of content (MJ Kg-1) and burning time (minutes). Results shown that peat has a higher heat of content at a depth of 3.0 m with 51.652.07 MJ Kg-1 and lower heat of content at 2.5 m depth with 49.600.46 MJ Kg-1. Burnt peat takes longer time recorded at 3.0 m peat depth with mean value of 127.201.88 minutes and the shorter time recorded at the depth of 1.5 m with mean 101.400.51 minutes. Thus, these data suggest that increases in the heat of content of the peat can increase the time for the peat to completely burnt. The heat content and burning time were perhaps influenced by the moisture content of the peat in Binsuluk Forest Reserve with range of moisture content between 209.880.18 % to 1013.511.39 % . The information on thermal properties of peat in Sabah is important for the forest managers and researchers to get an idea of the impact of forest fire on peat and can create better management on the peat swamp forest area.

KEYNOTES: Peat swamp forest, Peat fire, Burning time, Heat of Content



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Rosalam Sarbatly1, Farhana Abd Lahin2*, Chel-Ken Chiam3
1, 2, 3 Membrane Technology Research Group, Material and Mineral Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA

Email: 1rslam@ums.edu.my, 2*farhana.abdlahin@ums.edu.my, 3chiamchelken@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This paper reviews the challenges in the water supply provision, water source availability and quality and the distribution approaches in rural Sabah. The main challenges to provide potable water in Sabah is the variance in terrain and geographical distance between populated regions. Review reveals that other than the river water, average annual precipitation of 3000 millimetres (mm) could be harvested for domestic and agricultural purposes. Numbers of aquifer uncovered in the eastern and western region of Sabah with underlying sandstone and Quaternary Alluvium have significant potential for groundwater reservoirs. Aquifer along the coastal areas and islands around Sabah also gives sufficient potable water supplies. Minimal pollutant content was found in all water sources and acceptable under the National Water Standard of Malaysia, except for contaminants coming from septic tanks and agricultural activities. A decentralized water system is more beneficial for Sabah’s rural areas. Smaller scaled plants are flexible to collect from any water sources and treat at the point of use. Expenditure is significantly decreased by a shorter distribution network and lower installation and maintenance cost. Nonetheless, the treatment utilized may be limited to a simpler process as semiskilled or un-skilled personnel will be required to operate and maintain the system.

KEYWORDS: Groundwater, Malaysia, rainwater, rural area, surface water, water supply


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Tan Chun Hung 1 , Normah Awang Besar 1* , Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh 2 , Maznah Mahali 1 ,
Nissanto Masri 3

1 Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2 Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan Sungai Batang, Mile 10, 90000, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia. 3 Sabah Forest Development Authority (SAFODA) Jalan Gaya, Wisma Perkasa, 88000 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: normabr@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This study aimed to estimate above and belowground carbon stock in Acacia mangium stands of different silvicultural systems (planted and regeneration) at the Bengkoka Forest Plantation, Pitas, Sabah, Malaysia. Aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB), and soil organic carbon content (SOC) at depth of 30 cm were quantified. A comparison was done between the two different silvicultural systems of Acacia mangium. A random systematic sampling method was used for conducting the forest inventory. Three circular plots of 0.25 ha were established in each of the Acacia mangium systems. Diameter at breast high (DBH) of every tree was measured using a diameter tape. Shrub layer and organic layer were measured at five randomly selected positions in each plot. Five litter fall traps (1m x 1m) were set up in the same position as the shrub and organic layer. Three holes (25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm) were dug to get the roots for quantifying the roots biomass and soil for carbon content. The soil bulk density was determined by using undisturbed soil samples collected by using 51 mm diameter ring (100 cc.). The results showed that the total amount of carbon stock was 73.56 t ha-1 and 82.40 t ha-1 for planted and regeneration stands, respectively. The study revealed that the major contributor to total carbon stock for both planted and regeneration Acacia mangium stands was the aboveground biomass with mean values of 46.99 t ha-1 and 53.83 t ha-1 followed by belowground biomass with mean values of 26.57 t ha-1 and 28.57 t ha-1, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Acacia mangium, aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, carbon stock, soil organic carbon



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Tommy Nathaniel Nasiri, Suraya Abdul Sani, Rahmath Abdullah, Ainol Azifa Mohd Faik, Roslina Jawan,
and Mohd Khalizan Sabullah*

Biotechnology programme, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

*Corresponding author : khalizan@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT.Ethnomedicinal properties of Psidium guajava L. , or also known as guava leaves has been known since years ago. Nowadays, a lot of guava leaves-based products emerge in industries such as tea and cosmetic. The aims of this study are to examine and compare the variation in the phytochemical constituent as well as the antimicrobial efficacy of young and mature leaves extract. Phytochemical analysis shows the presence of phenol, tannin, terpene, saponin, and flavonoid in the mature leaves methanolic extract. A similar result was obtained in the young leaves extract but no saponin was detected. Total phenols content in young and mature leaves were determined at a total of 31.2 mg and 162 mg GA/g. Both leave extract was carried out to determine the antimicrobial properties by tested against two Grampositive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and one gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella enterica) through the disk-diffusion method by employing 40 µL of leaf extract solution per disk. Based on the observation, both young and mature extracts exhibited inhibitory activity (<6.0 mm) against the tested bacteria with different sensitivity. At the concentration of 10 mg/mL, mature leaves extract shows higher efficacy on S. enterica and B. cereus where the inhibitory zone was measured at 9.3 mm and 7.8 mm, respectively, compared to young leaves which is not sensitive to S. aureus but the inhibitory zone on B. cereus around 7.2 mm while S. aureus at 7.2 mm higher than mature leave extract. This can be concluded that the P. guajava mature leave displayed the best to applied as medicinal purposes as its high variety of phytochemical content and high efficacy as antimicrobial activity.

KEYWORDS: Psidium guajava L., extraction, phytochemical, antimicrobial, disk-diffusion method



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Sabrina Soloi1*, Adib Afifi Mohammad1
1Fakulti Sains dan Sumber Alam, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
*Corresponding author: sabrinas@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. The utilization of agro-based fibre in replacing the wood fibre for pulp and paper making has been the subject of interest due to the abundance of this agro-based fibre as well as to reduce the usage of wood pulp. The presence of cellulose and hemicellulose in acceptable amount for pulp paper makes this agro based fibre an alternative in paper making industry. Previous study has shown that oil palm leaf fibre can be moulded into paper sheet without any binding agent, however, the physical properties ofthe paper were very low compare to other non-wood paper. In this study, the oil palm leaf paper was prepared using 5,8,11 and 14% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with the addition of 5% starch as the binding agent. The incorporation of starch increases the smoothness of the paper. The tear strength of the paper increases with increasing concentration of sodium hydroxide. At higher concentration ofsodium hydroxide, the paper tear index falls within the range of commercial paper tear index. This study proves that the oil palm leaf has the potential to be developed in paper making industry.

KEYWORDS. Agro-based pulp; Oil palm leaf paper; Soda pulping; Binding agent; Surface morphology


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