VOLUME 39, Issue 1


Husni Mubarok, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Ibnu Maryanto

Olumide Isaac Fakolujo1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2Efere Martins Obuotor3, and Victor Folorunsho Olaleye2*

Joko Sulistyo*and Sohaib Nazir

Andy R. Mojiol

Jephte Sompud1*, Emily A. Gilbert1, Chirra Snoriana Mobik1, and Paul Yambun


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Jephte Sompud1*, Emily A. Gilbert1, Chirra Snoriana
Mobik1, and Paul Yambun2

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.
E-mail: jephte@ums.edu.my

2Research and Education Division, Zoology Unit, Kinabalu Park, P.O. Box 10626, Kota Kinabalu 88806, Sabah, Malaysia


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify the species offrogs that can be found at streams, ridges and disturbed habitats of Gaya Island. Field sampling was carried out for 16 nights consecutively starting from 18thJanuary until 3rd February 2013. This research was conducted using the standard method of Visual Encounter Survey. The sampling effort for this study was 53 hours. Six sites representing three different frogs’ habitats were selected, namely streams, ridges and disturbed areas. The transect line with dimensions of 10m x 100m was used for the sampling survey. The results show that there were five species of frogs from two families that were present in Gaya Island. The five species were Inger’s dwarf frog (Ingerana baluensis), Grass frog (Fejervarya limnocharis), Mangrove frog (Fejervarya cancrivora), Green paddy frog (Hylarana erythraea) and Dark-eared tree frog (Polypedates macrotis). The highest number of frogs caught was in the stream area, consisting of 69 individuals, followed by 18 individuals at the disturbed area and two individuals at the ridges. This preliminary study indicated that there was a relationship between frog species diversity with the variety of the habitat sites. These findings present a baseline data for the frog species in Gaya Island. Future studies should be encouraged in order to have an in-depth understanding of the frogs’ natural habitats in Gaya Island.

KEYWORDS. Frogs, Gaya Island, North Borneo, Sabah, Species diversity.



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Andy R. Mojiol
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.

Email : andy@ums.edu.my


ABSTRACT Kota Kinabalu City has several urban parks, which has become the centre of urban green space. However the function of the urban park is still not fully recognized. In addition, the enlightenment concept of urban forestry is still unclear in view of the public. This study aims to provide an assessment of the functions of each park in the city of Kota Kinabalu via public perception. Furthermore, it also aims to identify on public awareness about urban forestry concept. There are eight parks that were selected as the location of the study. The Parks comprise ofpublic and pocket parks that are maintained solely by the Kota Kinabalu City Hall. The sampling method used in this study is convenience sampling with questionnaires involving 160 respondents, of whom the target group are the park visitors. The results of the study show a total of 153 (95.6%) respondents agreed that each park has distinct and separated functions. It also shows that urban parks such as Prince Philip Public Park, Teluk Likas Park, Tun Fuad Stephen Public Park, and Ujana Rimba Public Park have recreation as the main function, meanwhile Tugu Petagas Public Park, Kampung Air Pocket Park, and Lintasan Deasoka Pocket Park have aesthetic as the main function, whilst the Signal Hill Park is found to serve as soil erosion control. In addition, a total of 123 (76.9%) of respondents understood the concept of urban forestry as planning and management of trees in urban area. As a conclusion, recreation and aesthetic are the main functions for all of the selected urban parks in the city of Kota Kinabalu city. Besides that, it is found that most of the public are aware of the existence ofurban forest concept in the city of Kota Kinabalu.

KEYWORDS. Public awareness, urban forest park, urban forest, and Kota Kinabalu, Sabah



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Joko Sulistyo*and Sohaib Nazir
Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author; Tel.; +6088-320000; Fax : +6088320259 E-mail; jokosulistyo@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Purpose of this study was to synthesize polyphenol glycoside as transfer products that may have some biological activities, by application of transglycosylation reaction in the present of polyphenolic compound which was extracted from Moringa oleifera leaves as its acceptor and different flours as its substrate for the transglycosylation. The reaction was catalyzed by glucosyltransferase derived from fungal culture of Trichoderma viridae as a source of crude enzyme. The formation of transfer products was determined using TLC and HPLC which exhibited that polyphenol glycoside could be synthesized through the enzymatic reaction. The study had shown that substrates such as starch, maltodexrin, corn flour, wheat flour, rice flour and cassava flour were also as potential substrates to synthesis the polyphenol glycoside in the presence of polyphenolic extract as acceptor. The result of HPLC analysis presented that the isolated glycosides had retention times and concentration of 1.446 (0.0017 mg/ml), 1.431 (0.14mg/ml), and 1.474 (0.012mg/ml), respectively, as compared to the retention time of arbutin (1.474) that was applied as authentic standard. Observation using 1H NMR as well as 13C NMR showed that structures of the transfer products were identified as gallic acid- 4-O-β-glucopyranoside, ellagic acid-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, and catechin-4’-O-gluco pyranoside, respectively. IC50 value of EAGP for DPPH was 46.12µg/ml as compared to ascorbic acid (35.96µg/ml), BHT (39.73µg/ml) and α-tocopherol (42.62µg/ml) respectively, while IC50 value ofEAGP for ABTS was 64.01µg/ml as compared to ascorbic acid (30.13µg/ml), BHT (38.09µg/ml) and α-tocopherol (54.84µg/ml) respectively, whilst IC50 value of EAGP for H2O2 was found to be 51.90µg/ml while for BHT, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol were 44.18µg/ml, 47.18µg/ml, and 49.57µg/ml, respectively.


KEYWORDS. Trichoderma viridae, transglycosylation, Moringa oleifera, polyphenol




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Olumide Isaac Fakolujo1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2Efere Martins Obuotor3, and Victor Folorunsho Olaleye2*
1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: volaleye@oauife.edu.ng; +234-803-404-5185


ABSTRACT. The effect of varying concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.05 and 1.0% v/v) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil on the growth performance and biochemical changes in the serum and liver of 144 Clarias gariepinus Juveniles stocked into 12 glass aquaria at the rate of 12 fish per tank in triplicate for 90 days was assessed. The growth performance indices of the fish juvenile over the 90 days of toxic exposure revealed that the mean weight gained, specific growth rate, and total feed intake of the fish specimen decreases with increase concentration of the WSF of crude oil. However, 10% and 20% mortality were recorded in the fish exposed to 0.5% and 1.0% WSF of crude oil respectively. The activity of ALT and AST in the serum of the fish were significantly higher (p<0.05) with the increased concentration of WSF of crude oil while the ALT and AST activity of the liver of the fish juveniles irrespective of the added concentration of WSF of crude oil showed no significant differences (p>0.05). The study concluded that WSF of crude oil had adverse effects on the growth performance, blood serum and liver activities in C. gariepinus juveniles.

. Crude oil, Growth performance, Serum, Enzymes, Fish, Pollution



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Husni Mubarok, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Ibnu Maryanto
1Bogor Agricultural University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, W1L5, Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia
2Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Zoology Division, Research Center for Biology, J1. Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM 46, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia Corresponding author; Dyah Perwistasari-Farajallah, Cell; +62 89638616507,

Email; navy.rock@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. This study aims to analyze karyotypes of Sulawesi’s small mammals with Giemsa banding technique. Five fruit bats species (Boneia bidens, Dobsonia viridis, Styloctenium wallacei, Thoopterus nigrescens, Thoopterus suhaniahae) and eight rat species (Bunomys andrewsi, Bunomys chrysocomus, Bunomys heinrichi, Paruromys sp., Rattus dommermani, Rattus exulans, Rattus hoffmanni, Taeromys celebensis) from Mt. Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi were analyzed. Karyotypes of three species in this study were described for the first time. There were two species of bats and one species of rats showed the best of karyotypes. B. bidens has 2n = 30, FN = 53, FNa = 50, sub metacentric and telocentric for X and Y chromosomes respectively. T. suhaniahae has 2n = 38, FN = 64, FNa = 60 and metacentric X chromosomes. R. hoffmanni has 2n = 44, FN = 61, FNa = 59 and telosentric X chromosomes.

KEYWORD. Karyotypes, 2n, FN, Metacentric, Telocentric


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Volume 38, Issue 2


A Short Review of Isoindigo Acceptor for Conjugated Polymeric Photovoltaics
Shu Er Tan, Wahidah Zabidi and Mohd Sani Sarjadi*

Characterization of Different Metal Oxide Promoted Alumina Catalyst
- S. M . Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, Duduku Krishnaiah, F .A . Lahin, and C. Ramlan

Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subrings
Mikhled, Okleh Alsarahead, Abd Ghafur, and Ahmad

On the General Solution of 2th Order Linear Differential Equation
J. López-Bonilla,G. Posadas-Durán, and O. Salas-Torres.

On the Roots of the Legendre Laguerre, and Hermite Polynomials
S. Álvarez-Ballesteros, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez

Relationship between Water Quality & Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Abundance in Tambunan District, Sabah.
Nur Ashiqin Abdul Hamid, Maria Lourdes T. Lardizabal, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Estherpeni Stephen and Maznah Mahali

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Shu Er Tan, Wahidah Zabidi and Mohd Sani Sarjadi*
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This paper focussed on the recent development of conjugated polymers that contains isoindigo as acceptor moiety in the application of copolymeric solar cell. In the past decade, various modifications have been done either on the isoindigo acceptor itself or incorporated the isoindigo with different donor moieties. Recently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of this isoindigo-based polymeric photovoltaics have achieved up to ~7%. Hence, it is a promising acceptor for the photovoltaics and is expected to break through the recent PCE achievement in the future. This review briefly summarized the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers that have been investigated by the past researches.

KEYWORD. Isoindigo; Conjugated copolymers; Polymeric solar cells; Small molecules.



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Characterization of Different Metal Oxide Promoted Alumina Catalyst

S.M. Anisuzzamana,b,*, Awang Bonob, Duduku Krishnaiahb, F. A. LahinbC. Ramlanb
aEnergy Research Unit (ERU),
bChemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Correspondence author. Tel: +6088-320000 ext. 3222, Fax: +6088-320348, E-mail address: anis_zaman@ums.edu.my; dr.anis.ums@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. In this study, different metal oxide alumina promoted catalysts were prepared and characterized. All the catalysts (CaO/Al2O3, CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3MnO/Al2O3, NiO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3) were prepared using the incipient wetness impregnation method followed by drying and calcination. The characterization of all six samples of catalysts was done to determine the surface morphology, porosity, functional group, thermal stability, metal content and particle size distribution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of samples showed that there were pores on the surface of the alumina. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that copper oxide alumina promoted (CuO/Al2O3) had the high porosity which is 36.77 m2/g followed by zinc oxide (ZnO/Al2O3), calcium oxide (CaO/Al2O3) nickel oxide (NiO/Al2O3) manganese oxide (MnO/Al2O3) and ferric oxide alumina promoted (FeO/Al2O3) catalysts. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the presence of by-product existed in all catalysts. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis showed the presence of Cu, Fe and Zn in the CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3, while Ca was absent in CaO/Al2O3Besides, through thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), all the catalysts showed a slight decrease in weight which can be considered as a stable catalyst. The particle size distribution analysis using the Zetasizer showed the particle size mean based on the intensity of CaO/Al2O3, CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3MnO/Al2O3, NiO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3 were 2305 nm, 5560 nm, 5560 nm, 1281 nm, 1281 nm and 3580 nm, respectively.

KEYWORDS. Biofuel, metal oxide promoted alumina catalyst, wet incipient impregnation method



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Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subrings

Mikhled1* Okleh Alsarahead, Abd Ghafur1 Ahmad
1School of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author’s email: mekhledsarheed@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we defined the complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring and introduced some new concepts like Intuitionistic fuzzy sets and homogeneous complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Then, we investigated some of characteristics of complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring. The relationship between complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring and intuitionistic fuzzy subring is also investigated. It is found that every complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring yields two intuitionistic fuzzy subring. Finaly, we defined the image and inverse image of complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring under ring homomorphism, and thus studied their elementary properties.

KEYWORDS. Intuitionistic fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy subring, homogeneous complex intuitionistic fuzzy set, complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring.



  • Alkouri, A. & Salleh A. 2012. Complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Sciences (ICFAS ’12), vol. 1482 of AIP Confere Proceedings, (2012) 464-470.
  • Alsarahead, M. & Ahmad, A. 2017a. Complex Fuzzy Subgroups, Applied Mathematical Sciences, 11 (41):2011-2021.
  • Alsarahead, M. & Ahmad, A. 2017b. Complex Fuzzy Subrings, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, accepted for publication.
  • Alsarahead, M. & Ahmad, A. 2017c. Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subgroups, submitted to Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. Atanassov, K.T. 1986. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 20 (1): 87-96.
  • Hur, K. Kang, H.W. & Song, H.K. 2003. Intuitionistic fuzzy subgroups and subrings, Honam Mathematical Journal, 25 (2): 19-41.
  • Ramot, D. Milo, R. Friedman, M. & Kandel, A. 2002. Complex fuzzy sets, IEEE Transaction on Fuzzy Systems, 10 (2):171-186.
  • Banerjee, B. & Basnet, D.K. 2003. Intuitionistic fuzzy subrings and ideals, The Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, 11 :139-155.
  • Zadeh, L.A. 1965. Fuzzy sets, Information and Control, 8 :338-353.

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On the General Solution of 2th Order Linear Differential Equation

J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, O. Salas-Torres
ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 4, 1er. Piso, Col. Lindavista CP 07738, CDMX, México.
Email: lopezb@ipn.mx

ABSTRACT. We employ a method of factorization to obtain the general solution of the second order linear differential equation, which is an alternative procedure to the usual Variation of Parameters method of Lagrange. We consider that our approach can be adapted to linear differential equations of the third and fourth order.

KEYWORDS. Linear differential equation of second order, Variation of parameters, Factorization method.


  • A. Hernández-Galeana, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the second order linear differential equation, Pure and Appl. Maths. Lett. 2 (2014) 31-34.
  • G. Bahadur Thapa, A. Domínguez-Pacheco, J. López-Bonilla, On the linear differential equation of second order, Prespacetime Journal 6, No. 10 (2015) 999-1001.
  • G. Krishna Srinivasan, A note on Lagrange’s method of variation of parameters, Missouri J. Math. Sci.19 (2007) 11-14.
    J. H. Caltenco, J. López-Bonilla, J. Morales, G. Ovando, On an iterative method to solve 2th order homogeneous linear differential equations, Inform. Sci. Comput. No. 1 (2014) 1-8.
  • A. Hernández-Galeana, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the second order linear differential equation, Pure and Appl. Maths. Lett. 2 (2014) 31-34.
  • J. López-Bonilla, A. Zaldívar-Sandoval, J. Yaljá Montiel, 2th order linear differential operator in its exact form, J. Vect. Rel. 5, No. 1 (2010) 139-141.
  • J. López-Bonilla, S. Vidal-Beltrán, S. Yáñez-San Agustín, Homogeneous linear differential equation ofsecond order, Prespacetime Journal 7, No. 13 (2016) 1786-1788. J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, O. Salas-Torres, Variational principle for, Prespacetime Journal 8, No. 2 (2017) 226-228.
  • J. López-Bonilla, B. Man Tuladhar, B. Moreno-Ley, On the 3rd. order linear differential equation, Kathmandu Univ. J. Sci. Eng. & Techn. 8, No. 2 (2012) 7-10.
  • T. Quinn, S. Rai, Variation of parameters in differential equations, PRIMUS 23, No. 1 (2012) 25-44.
  • V. Barrera F., J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the particular solution of Prespacetime Journal 7, No. 12 (2016) 1677-1679.
  • Z. Ahsan, Differential equations and their applications, Prentice-Hall, New Delhi (2004).
  • Z. Ahsan, R. Cruz-Santiago, J. López-Bonilla, Linear differential equations of third and fourth order, Aligarh Bull. Maths. 31, No. 1 (2012) 5-7


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On the Roots of the Legendre Laguerre, and Hermite Polynomials

 S. Álvarez-Ballesteros, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez,
ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 5, 1er. Piso, Col. Lindavista CP 07738, CDMX, México

ABSTRACT. For several orthogonal polynomials, Cohen proved that their roots are the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. In this paper, we give examples of this Cohen’s result for the Legendre, Laguerre, and Hermite polynomials, which are useful in applications to quantum mechanics and numerical analysis.

KEYWORDS: Laguerre and Hermite polynomials, Leverrier-Takeno’s technique, Legendre polynomials.



  • A. Bucur, B. E. Carvajal-Gámez, J. López-Bonilla, Laguerre polynomials: Their Laplace transform via equidistant interpolation, J. Sci. Res. 53 (2009) 257-258.
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  • H. E. Salzer, R. Zucker, R. Capuano, Table of the zeros and weight factors of the first twenty Hermite polynomials, J. Res. Nat. Bureau Stand. 48, No. 2 (1952) 111-116.
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  • I. Guerrero-Moreno, J. López-Bonilla, J. Rivera-Rebolledo, Leverrier-Takeno coefficients for the characteristic polynomial of a matrix, J. Inst. Eng. 8, No. 1-2 (2011) 255-258.
  • J. H. Caltenco, J. López-Bonilla, J. Rivera-Rebolledo, Gaussian quadrature via Hermite and Lagrange interpolations, J. Sci. Res. 55 (2011) 177-180.
  • J. G. F. Francis, The QR transformation: A unitary analogue to the LR transformation, The Computer Journal 4, No. 3 (1961) 265-271 and 332-345.
  • J. H. Caltenco, J. López-Bonilla, R. Peña-Rivero, Morse’s radial wave function, Lithuanian J. of Phys. 50, No. 4 (2010) 403-404.
  • J. López-Bonilla, A. Lucas-Bravo, S. Vidal-Beltrán, Integral relationship between Hermite and Laguerre polynomials: Its application in quantum mechanics, Proc. Pakistan Acad. Sci. 42, No. 1 (2005) 63-65.
  • J. López-Bonilla, B. Man Tuladhar, R. Peña-Rivero, Relationship between wave functions of two-dimensional hydrogen atom in parabolic and polar coordinates, J. Sci. Res. 54 (2010) 219-22.
  • J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, H. Torres-Silva, On the Legendre polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 6, No. 8 (2015) 735-739.
  • J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, On the Saha’s generating function for the Hermite polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 7, No. 13 (2016) 1805-1806.
  • J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, V. M. Salazar del Moral, On some identities for the Laguerre polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 8, No. 10 (2017) to appear.
  • J. Mawhin, A. Ronveaux, Schrödinger and Dirac equations for the hydrogen atom, and Laguerre polynomials, Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 64 (2010) 429-460.
  • R. Cruz-Santiago, J. López-Bonilla, S. Yáñez-San Agustín, A note on the Laguerre polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 8, No. 4 (2017) 511-512.
  • R. E. Greenwood, J. J. Miller, Zeros of the Hermite polynomials and weights for Gauss mechanical quadrature formula, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 54, No. 8 (1948) 765-769.
  • V. Barrera-Figueroa, J. López-Bonilla, J. Sosa, Multiple root finder algorithm for Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials via Newton’s method, Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae 33 (2006) 3-13.
  • V. Barrera-Figueroa, J. López-Bonilla, J. Sosa, Method of moments and non-uniform sampling via Legendre polynomials roots, Bol. Soc. Cub. Mat. Comp. 7, No. 1 (2009) 19-33.
  • V. N. Kublanovskaya, Certain algorithms for the solution of the complete eigenvalue problem, Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961) 17-19.Download Full Paper Here (Right-Click and Save As..)

Relationship between Water Quality & Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Abundance in Tambunan District, Sabah

Nur Ashiqin Abdul Hamid1*, Maria Lourdes T. Lardizabal1, Hiroyuki Takaoka2Estherpeni Stephen1 & Maznah Mahali
1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University Malaysia Sabah, Jln. UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur
Corresponding author: Nur Ashiqin Abudul Hamid Email: ashiqinhamid@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. A study to investigate the relationship between black flies (Simuliidae) pupa abundance and physio-chemical parameters such as velocity, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solid was conducted at Tambunan district, Sabah. A total of six rivers were selected as sampling stations. Five sampling points located at a distance of 5-10 meters were established in each sampling station. Sampling was conducted every fortnight for a duration of six months from October 2015 until March 2017. Samples of black flies larvae and pupae were manually collected from substrates consisting of grasses, plant roots and plastics which were found stuck in between the rocks with running water area. Water quality parameters that were measured during every sampling, include water temperature, velocity, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolve solids (TDS). Results from this study showed that The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed two PC’s which had eigenvalues >1.0 and together accounted for 78% total variability of the physio-chemical parameters. PC-1 which accounted 56% of variability defined a normal temperature (23-250C), high water velocity, high dissolved oxygen, low conductivity and low total dissolved solid. While PC-2 explained 22% of the variability was related to water pH. Pearson’s correlation result shows that only velocity had a significant relationship with the abundance of black flies (r=0.512, p<0.01), while other parameters did not show any significant relationship with its abundance. In conclusion, results from this study revealed that only water velocity had a significant relationship with the abundance of black flies.

KEYWORDS: Black flies, physio-chemical parameters, Tambunan.



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  • Takaoka, H. (2001). Two new and three newly recorded species of Black flies(Diptera: Simuliidae) in Sabah, Malaysia.Japanese Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 29: 111 114 pp.
  • Takaoka, H. (2008). Taxonomic revision of tuberosum species-group of Simulium (Simulium) in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia (Diptera:Simuliidae). Med Entomology and Zoology. 59 (2): 55-80 pp. Takaoka, H., Sofian, M.A. Rosli, H.
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VOLUME 38, Issue 1

List Of Papers
Paul Njenga Waithaka1*, Francis B. Mwaura1, John M. Wagacha1, Eliud M. Gathuru2, Francis M. Ngumbu2 and Anderson K. Mwangi2

Julyus-Melvin Mobilik1,*, Teck-Yee Ling1Mohd-Lokman Bin Husain2, & Ruhana Hassan1

Emily A. Gilbert, Jephte Sompud*, Cynthia B. Sompud

Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud*, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert

Zulherry Isnain1, *Junaidi Asis1, Hazerina Pungut2, Sanudin Tahir2, Baba Musta1 & Hardianshah Saleh2


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Paul Njenga Waithaka1*, Francis B. Mwaura1, John M. Wagacha1, Eliud M. Gathuru2, Francis M. Ngumbu2 and Anderson K. Mwangi2
1University of Nairobi, school of biological sciences, P. O. Box, 30197-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
2Egerton University, Department of biological sciences, P. O. Box, 536 Njoro, Kenya
Corresponding author; Paul Njenga Waithaka, Cell; +254 721104637, Email; waithakanj@gmail.com, waithakanj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT A total of 98 soil samples collected from Menengai geothermal site located in Nakuru, Kenya were analyzed for their chemical and microbial components. In region A, phosphorus, sodium, nitrogen and carbon were deficient, region B and C, phosphorus and manganese while in while in D the deficient minerals were phosphorus, sodium, nitrogen and carbon. Toxic minerals were calcium and magnesium in regions A, B, C and D. The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli with a mean of (3.35×107) while the least were Bacillus sp. (1.40×105). Among the fungi, the most dominant were Aspergillus nomius with a mean of 4.42x 104 with the least been Panicillium sacculum (8.09×103). As much as geothermal exploration is important in boosting the country’s energy reserves, there is need to rehabilitate the caldera so as to restore the microbial composition of the region.

Keywords: diversity, crater, geothermal, Menengai, microbial, chemical



  • Abdullah M. Al-Dhabaan, K. and Ali H. (2016). Identification of contaminated soil from isolated fungi in Riyadh province. Life Science Journal, 13(2): 123-128.
  • Connor, N., Sikorski, J. and Rooney, A. P. (2010) Ecology of speciation in the Genus Bacillus. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 76:1349-1358.
  • Commichau, F. M., Pietack, N. and Stu¨ lke, J. (2013). Essential genes in Bacillus subtilis: a re-evaluation after ten years. Molecular Biosystems, 9: 1068–1075. Das, M. and Anitha, S. (2011). Mycoremediatio of moocrotophos, International Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1): 337-342.
  • Dhiva, S., Jaishanker Pillai, H.P. and Shinde, V. M. (2016). Isolation and characterization of soil microorganisms for potential biocontrol activity. Internatinoal Journal of Current Research in Biological Sciences, 3(3): 26-29.
  • Egejuru, A. L., Alessandro, W. D., Tagliavia, M., Parello, F. and Quatrini, P. (2014). Methanotrophic activity and diversity of methanotrophs in volcanic geothermal soils at Pantelleria (Italy). Journal of Biogeosciences, 11: 5865–5875.
  • Gagliano, A. L., Alessandro, W. D., Tagliavia, M., Parello, F. and Quatrini, P. (2014). Methanotrophic activity and diversity of methanotrophs in volcanic geothermal soils at Pantelleria (Italy). Journal of Biogeosciences, 11: 5865–5875.
  • Galperin, M. Y., Mekhedov, S. L., Puigbo, P., Smirnov, S., Wolf, Y. I. and Rigden, D. J. (2012). Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes. Journal of Environmental Microbiology, 14: 2870–2890.
  • Guo, Y., Fujimura, R., Sato, Y, Suda, W., Kim, S., Oshima, K., Hattori, M., Kamijo, T., Narisawa, K. and Ohta, K. (2014). Characterization of Early Microbial Communities on Volcanic Deposits along a Vegetation Gradient on the Island of Miyake, Japan. Journal of Microbes in the Environment, 29 (1):38-49.
  • Jasuja, J. L., Kumar, G., Rao, K. V. (2013). Screening of pectinase producing microorganisms from agricultural waste dump soil. Asian Journal of Biochemistryand Pharmaceutical Research 2:329- 337.
  • Jugran, J., Rawat, N. and Joshi, G. (2015). Amylase production by Geobacillus sp. GJA1 isolated from a hot spring in Uttarakhand. ENVIS Himalayan ecology, 23: 120-125.
  • Karthik, L., Singh, K., Bose, H., Richa, K., Gaurav, K. and Bhaskara, R. (2012). Isolation and characterization of protease producing marine eubacteria. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(5): 1633-1649.
  • Khursheed, A. W., Rajni, Y., Shivom, S. and Krishan, K. U. (2014). Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties and Fertility of Soils in Gwalior, Madhya.Pradesh. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 10 (2): 48-56.
  • Kumar, M., Yadav, A. N., Tiwari, R., Prasanna, R. and Saxena, A. K. 2014. Deciphering the diversity of culturable thermotolerant bacteria from Manikaran hot springs. Annals of Microbiology, 64: 741 -751.
  • Mamta J., Rashmi S., A. K. Sharma, K. and Anil, P. (2013). Isolation and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum, a wilt causing fungus, for its pathogenic and non-pathogenic nature in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Journal of Applied and Natural Science 5 (1): 108-117.
  • Mariita, N. O. (2003). An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift crustal structure: implications for geothermal energy prospecting for Menengai area. A PhD dissertation, University of Texas at El Paso, USA.
  • Martins, L. F., Antunes, L. P., Pascon, R. C., de Oliveira, J. C., Digiampietri, L. A., Barbosa, D., Peixoto, B. M., Vallim, M. A. and VianaNiero (201 3). Metagenomic analysis of a tropical composting operation at the Sa˜o Paulo Zoo Park reveals diversity of biomass degradation functions and organisms. PLoS ONE (8) 619-28.
  • Omenda, P. A., Opondo, K., Lagat, J., Mungania, J., Mariita, N., Onacha, S., Simiyu, S., Wetang’ula, G., and Ouma, P. (2000). Ranking of geothermal prospects in the Kenya rift. Kenya Electricity Generating Company Limited, internal report, 121 pp.
  • Osakwe, S. A. (2014). Evaluation of Physicochemical Characteristics of Soils in the Flood Disaster Affected Areas of Isoko Region of Delta State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(5): 24-31.
  • Paul Njenga Waithaka, Francis B. Mwaura, John M. Wagacha, Eliud M. Gathuru, Francis M. Ngaumbu and Anderson K. Mwangi Ramanadevi, V., Naik, L. S. and Aruna, K. (2013). Isolation and Biochemical characterization of protease isolated from Bacillus sp SVN12. International Journal of Research in Pure and Applied Microbiology, 3(3): 94-101.
  • Rohilla S. K. and Salar R. K. (2012). Isolation and Characterization of Various Fungal Strains from Agricultural Soil Contaminated with Pesticides. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 1(2): 297-303.
  • Sharma, N., Vyas, G. and Pathania, S. (2013). Culturable diversity of thermophilic microorganisms found in hot springs of northern Himalayas and to explore their potential for production of industrially important enzymes. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences 1: 165-178.
  • Sunita, D. and Kanwar, S. (2016). Deciphering the diversity of aerobic culturable thermophiles in hot springs of Manikaran, Himachal Pradesh. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 6(1): 156-162.
  • Umar, M., Akafyi, D., Abdulkarim, I., Yaya, A. A., and Danasabe, Y. (2015). International Journal of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 4(10): 063-066.
  • Umar, M., Yaya, A. A., Yusuf, G., Tafinta, I.Y., Aliko, A.A., Jobbi, D.Y. and Lawal, G. (2016). Biochemical characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility trends of Proteus mirabilis isolated from patients suspected with urinary tract infections attending Sickbay Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. Annals of Biological Sciences, 4(2):1-8.
  • Waithaka, P. N, Muthini M. J. and Kebira A. K. (2015). Physico-chemical Analysis, Microbial Isolation, Sensitivity Test of the Isolates and Solar Disinfection of Water Running in Community Taps and River Kandutura in Nakuru North Sub-county, Kenya. The Open Microbiology Journal, 9: 117-124.

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Julyus-Melvin Mobilik1,*, Teck-Yee Ling1,

Mohd-Lokman Bin Husain2, & Ruhana Hassan1
1Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
2Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

*Email: julyus.mobilik@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans, but their specific sources, quantities and distribution remains inconclusive. Although the threat from marine debris pollution has beginning to be recognized in Malaysia, comprehensive studies are still lacking to document the pollution. This study adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey to assess the type, amount and sources of debris on a one kilometer section in Tg. Aru and Kosuhoi beaches, Sabah, during surveys in December 2012 (northeast monsoon, NEM), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon, IM) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon, SWM). The mean total debris items was 1,220±532 item/km and weighing at 52.8±17.2 kg/km, where, Kosuhoi beach (1,241 item/km or 57 kg/km) received substantially greater quantities of debris compared to Tg. Aru beach (1,199 item/km or 48 kg/km). Total debris items was more abundant during SWM (1,789 item/km) compared to NEM (1,139 item/km) and IM (733 item/km) seasons. Plastic category objects were the most numerous amounting to 1,057 item/km (86.64%) in total debris items. Clear plastic bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, colored plastic bottles and cups were the most abundant objects collected which they contributed 606 item/km (49.69%) from the total debris item collected. The main source of debris objects abundance was from common source which contributed 52% from the total debris objects, whereas, those from terrestrial and marine sources contributed 32% and 16% respectively.  The high percentage of terrestrial and common sources debris requires marine environment stakeholders to diversify their approach and priority in mitigating this alarming result especially during SWM period. Awareness program is an effective preventive measure that should be continued and intensified. However, the program should focus on target group to ensure the awareness effectiveness to reduce if not totally eliminate the debris in the marine environment.

KEYWORDS. Beach pollution, plastic, monsoon seasons, marine debris source, Sabah



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  • Chan, E.-H., Chak, L.-H., & Der, F. P. (1996). Beached debris in Pulau Redang and a mainland beach in Terengganu. Paper presented at the Proceedings 13th Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Society of Marine Science, (pp. 99–108). Retrieved from http://www.ioseaturtles.org/bibliography_search_detail.php?id=1127
  • Cheshire, A., Adler, E., Barbière, J., Cohen, Y., Evans, S., Jarayabhand, S., … Westphalen, G. (2009). UNEP / IOC Guidelines on Survey and Monitoring of Marine Litter. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 186 & IOC Technical Series No. 83.
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Emily A. Gilbert, Jephte Sompud*, Cynthia B. Sompud
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 44800 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
E-mail: jefty2003@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. This review addresses the impacts of the noise, the vital role of acoustic communication and the response of the bird in overcoming the increased anthropogenic noise. The rapid development human activities nowadays induce the noise that interrupt the acoustic communication of birds. Disturbance of the signals transmission causes detrimental impact on the birds as they are highly depending on the acoustic communication for their survival, territory defense and reproduction. Continuous exposure of the noise then results in the declination of species richness of which have been stated by several past studies. Although most of the studies stated that the negative impact as a consequences from the anthropogenic noise, however there is positive effect contributed by the noise of which are also recorded in other studies. Moreover, the impacts other variables such as vegetation density that cause major changes to the bird population as compared to noise have also been highlighted in several studies. This indicates that considering several influencing factor is important in measuring impact that leads to the changes that occur within the bird population. Thus, in depth studies on the impacts of anthropogenic noise towards the species of birds by taking into account other contributing variables is important to enable the noise management to be conducted effectively especially in development areas as way in conserving the biodiversity of the bird population.

KEYWORDS. Anthropogenic noise, avian community, bird’s population, acoustic communication



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Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud*, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
E-mail: jefty2003@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Large areas of tropical forest worldwide have been converted rapidly into forest plantation. Plantation can play an important role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability, and biological diversity to degraded tropical lands. However, the conversion of forest areas to plantation rapidly resulting birds to lose their natural habitat. Therefore, Acacia mangium plantations have the potential as the refuges for birds. As such, this study was conducted to investigate the bird population in 2-year Acacia mangium plantation, Sabah Forest Industries (SFI), Sabah to determine the bird population density and diversity of 2 year mangium plantation in SFI. There is no published information of the detailed status of bird in SFI yet. Bird survey was done by using point count method. The bird population density was analyzed by using distance 6.2 and bird diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index. A total of 343 birds belong to 53 species from 21 families were detected. The bird population in 2-year mangium plantation was 17.71 individual per hectare and Shannon-Wiener diversity index for bird diversity was 3.24. This study shows that the bird population density and diversity in SFI were higher as compared to other past studies in Borneo plantation area.

KEYWORDS. Forest plantation, population density, bird diversity, Acacia mangium,  Sabah



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Zulherry Isnain1, *Junaidi Asis1, Hazerina Pungut2, Sanudin Tahir2, Baba Musta1 & Hardianshah Saleh2
1Small Island Research Centre (SRIC)
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources (FSSA)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)

2Geology Programme
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources (FSSA)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)

ABSTRACT A research has been conducted at Silam Coast Conservation Area (SCCA) to evaluate the geotourism potential of the geological heritage resources. The study area is located at Silam, Lahad Datu, in the eastern part of Sabah. The SCCA and surrounding area were made up of igneous and sedimentary rocks of ultramafic, gabbro, amphibolite, basaltic dykes, plagiogranites and basaltic rocks capped by red radiolarian chert. It is also known as the Darvel Bay Ophiolite Complex which represents the ophiolitic sequence of oceanic crust that formed during Jurassic to Cretaceous around 150-80 million years ago.  In SCCA area, only pillow basalt, lava basalt, chert and minor occurrence of basalt dyke were present. Mid-Miocene tectonic event deformed and uplifted the rock unit. SCCA is a coastal area which also covers few small islands namely Tabun Island and Saranga Island to the northeast of the conservation area in Darvel Bay. The geomorphology and geologic features contribute to the aesthetic values of the area that enhances the scientific values. Two potential geosites have been identified which are Tabun-Saranga islands and Pandanus-Ara beaches that hold unique features of remnant cliff, wave-cut cliff, faults, caves, stacks, tafoni, headland, pocket beach, colluvial beach deposit and remnant of raised coral colonies. Development of this geosites could lead to conservation for sustaining the geological heritage resources as well as contributing to the state’s economy and tourism industry.

Keywords: Geotourism, Silam Coast Conservation Area, SCCA, Tabun,Island, Saranga Island



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Volume 37, Issue 2 (Full)

Fuzzy Interpolation Rational Bicubic Bezier Surface
- Rozaimi Zakaria, Abd Fatah Wahab, R.U. Gobithaasan, Isfarita Ismail

Geological Mapping of Sabah, Malaysia, Using Airborne Gravity Survey
- Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, Hassan Jamil, Mohd Noor Isa, Azhari Mohamed, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Baba Musta, Rene Forsberg, Arne Olesen, Emil Nielsen, Abd Majid A Kadir, Ahmad Fahmi Abd Majid, Kamaludin Talib, Saiful Aman Sulaiman

Sorption and Characterization Studies of Activated Carbon Prepared from Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
- Collin G. Joseph, S.M. Anisuzzaman, Pak Yan Moh, E-W Amy Lim

Fabrication and Characterization of Cu2O/ZnO Thin Films for pn Heterojunction Devices
- Azmizam Manie@mani, Saafie Salleh, Fuei Pien Chee, Afisah Alias, Saturi Baco

Mercerized Natural Cellulose Based-Solid Polymer Electrolyte
-Jahimin Asik, Fauziah Abdul Aziz, Razali Idris