VOLUME 39, Issue 2


- Nur Karimah Binti Mohamad, Freddy Kuok San, Yeo*, Wi Soon See, Wei Hong Lay & Cheksum @ Supiah Binti Tawan

- Mohd Hafiz Abdul Majid, Yvonne Melse Laurencea, Mohammad Shaheen Khan and Mohd Sani Sarjadi

- Arman Hadi Fikri, Tan Wai Shu, Andrew Wong Bak Hui, Kueh Boon Hee & Sahana Harun

- Andy R. Mojiol

Raster Calculation Tools for Searching Potential Landslide: Case Study Tambunan-Ranau Road, Sabah, Malaysia
- Woon Zhan Wen dan Mustapa Abd. Talip

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Nur Karimah Binti Mohamad, Freddy Kuok San, Yeo*, Wi Soon See, Wei Hong Lay & Cheksum @ Supiah Binti Tawan
Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: yksfreddy@unimas.my

ABSTRACT. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. belongs to the family Lamiaceae. There are two varieties, white corolla (OAV-1) and purple corolla (OAV-2) varieties. An observation on inflorescence and flower development of O. aristatus was conducted alongside with the study on its breeding system. Inflorescence of OAV-1 and OAV-2 varieties started to develop approximately two and a half months after transplanting the rooted cuttings. The initiation of inflorescence until the senescence took about 75 days. Flower buds started to appear on the inflorescence approximately after 17 days of the commencement of inflorescence development. The development from flower bud until flower senescence took around 50 days. The artificial pollination tests, however, suggested that O. aristatus is predominantly a self-pollinated species.

KEYWORD. Orthosiphon aristatus, floral biology, artificial pollination



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Mohd Hafiz Abdul Majid, Yvonne Melse Laurence, Mohammad Shaheen Khan  and Mohd Sani Sarjadi 

a Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
b Knowledge and Technology Management Division, Sabah Economic Development & Investment Authority (SEDIA), 88873, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This report presents a study on the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans leaves from different drying and extraction methods. The C. nutans leaves were subjected through three different drying methods: oven (40°C, 60°C and 80°C), vacuum oven and air drying. Afterwards, extraction on the dried leaves was performed using three different extraction techniques: soxhlet, maceration and ultrasoundassisted solvent extraction. Finally, total flavonoid and antioxidantactivity was determined spectrophotometrically by aluminium chloride colorimetric assay and 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method respectively. The results showed that the choice of drying and extraction methods had a significant influence on total flavonoid and antioxidant content of C. nutans extract. The combination of drying C. nutans leaves using laboratory oven at 60°C and soxhlet extraction obtained the highest amount of total flavonoid and antioxidant content at 24.53 ± 0.95 mg RU/g and 89.73 ± 4.39mg TE/ g respectively. The highest antioxidant activity for C. nutansfromair-dried samples and vacuum oven-dried samples were obtained through maceration extraction at 85.46 mg TE/ g and 83.96 mg TE/ g respectively.

KEYWORDS. Clinacanthus nutans; Drying; Extraction method; Flavonoid; Antioxidant


  • Alam, A., Ferdosh, S., Ghafoor, K., Hakim, A., Juraimi, A. S., Khatib, A. & Sarker, Z. I. 2016. Clinacanthus nutans: a review of the medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 9, 402-409.
  • Anwar, F., Kalsoom, U., Sultana, B., Mushtaq, M., Mehmood, T. & Arshad, H.A. 2013. Effect of drying method and extraction solvent on the total phenolics and antioxidant activity of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) extracts. International Food Research Journal 20, 653-659.
  • Chan, E. W. C., Lye, P. Y., Eng, S. Y. & Tan, Y. P. 2013. Antioxidant properties of herbs with enhancement effects of drying treatments: A synopsis. Free Radicals and Antioxidants,
    3, 2-6. 
  • Chelyn, J. L., Omar, M. H., Mohd Yousof, N. S. A., Ranggasamy, R., Wasiman, M. I. & Ismail, Z. 2014. Analysis of Flavone C-Glycosides in the Leaves of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau by HPTLC and HPLC-UV/DAD. The Scientific World Journal, 20146.
  • Huang, D., Guo, W., Gao, J., Chen, J. & Olatunji, J. O. 2015. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau ethanol extract inhibits hepatoma in mice through upregulation of the immune response. Molecules, 20, 17405-17428.
  • Khoo, L. W., Mediani, A., Zolkeflee, N. K. Z., Leong, S. W., Ismail, I. S., Khatib, A., Shaari, K. & Abas, F. 2015. Phytochemical diversity of Clinacanthus nutans extracts and their bioactivity correlations elucidated by NMR based metabolomics. Phytochemistry Letters, 14, 123-133.
  • Alam, A., Ferdosh, S., Ghafoor, K., Hakim, A., Juraimi, A. S., Khatib, A. & Sarker, Z. I. 2016. Clinacanthus nutans: a review of the medicinal uses, pharmacology and
    phytochemistry. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 9, 402-409.
  • Anwar, F., Kalsoom, U., Sultana, B., Mushtaq, M., Mehmood, T. & Arshad, H.A. 2013. Effect of drying method and extraction solvent on the total phenolics and antioxidant activity
    of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) extracts. International Food Research Journal 20, 653-659. 
  • Chan, E. W. C., Lye, P. Y., Eng, S. Y. & Tan, Y. P. 2013. Antioxidant properties of herbs with enhancement effects of drying treatments: A synopsis. Free Radicals and Antioxidants, 3, 2-6.
  • Chelyn, J. L., Omar, M. H., Mohd Yousof, N. S. A., Ranggasamy, R., Wasiman, M. I. & Ismail, Z. 2014. Analysis of Flavone C-Glycosides in the Leaves of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau by HPTLC and HPLC-UV/DAD. The Scientific World Journal, 20146.
  • Huang, D., Guo, W., Gao, J., Chen, J. & Olatunji, J. O. 2015. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau ethanol extract inhibits hepatoma in mice through upregulation of the immune response. Molecules, 20, 17405-17428.
  • Khoo, L. W., Mediani, A., Zolkeflee, N. K. Z., Leong, S. W., Ismail, I. S., Khatib, A., Shaari, K. & Abas, F. 2015. Phytochemical diversity of Clinacanthus nutans extracts and their bioactivity correlations elucidated by NMR based metabolomics. Phytochemistry Letters, 14, 123-133.
  • Kumar, S. 2013. Efficient Method of Storage of Dry Herbs. Journal for Drugs and Medicines, 5, A1-A3. 
  • Lau, K., Lee, S. & Chin, J. 2014. Effect of the methanol leaves extract of Clinacanthus nutans on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in male mice. Journal of Acute Disease, 3, 22- 25.
  • Lusia, B. M., Hasmadi, M., Zaleha, A. & Mohd Fadzelly, A. 2015. Effect of different drying methods on phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of unfermented and fermented teas from Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans Lind.) leaves. International Food Research Journal, 22.
  • Mai, C. W., Yap, K. S. I., Kho, M. T., Ismail, N. H., Yusoff, K., Shaari, K., Chin, S. Y. & Lim, E. S. H. 2016. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau Extracts: Inhibition of Cytokine Production and Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activation. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7.
  • Sakdarat, S., Shuyprom, A., Pientong, C., Ekalaksananan, T. & Thongchai, S. 2009. Bioactive constituents from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau. Bioorganic & medicinal
    chemistry, 17, 1857-1860.
  • Satong-Aun, W., Assawarachan, R. & Noomhorm, A. 2011. The Influence of Drying Temperature and Extraction Methods on [alpha]-Mangostin in Mangosteen Pericarp. Journal of Food Science and Engineering, 1, 85.
  • Shim, S. Y., Aziana, I. & Khoo, B. Y. 2013. Perspective and insight on Clinacanthus nutans Lindau in traditional medicine. International Journal of Integrative Biology, 14, 7-9.
  • Yvonne Melse Laurence, Mohammad Shaheen Khan and Mohd Sani Sarjadi Tu, S.-F., Liu, R. H., Cheng, Y. -B., Hsu, Y.-M., Du, Y.-C., El-Shazly, M., Wu, Y.-C. & Chang, F.-R. 2014. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts. Molecules, 19, 20382-20390.
  • Yong, Y. K., Tan, J. J., Teh, S. S., Mah, S. H., Ee, G. C. L., Chiong, H. S. & Ahmad, Z. 2013. Clinacanthus nutans extracts are antioxidant with antiproliferative effect on cultured human cancer cell lines. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.
  • Zulkipli, I. N., Rajabalaya, R., Idris, A., Sulaiman, N. A. & David, S. R. 2017. Clinacanthus nutans : A Review on Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Properties. Pharmaceutical Biology, 55, 1093-1113.

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Arman Hadi Fikri, Tan Wai Shu, Andrew Wong Bak Hui, Kueh Boon Hee & Sahana Harun

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ITBC) Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT. A study on the aquatic invertebrate communities was conducted at Tabin Wildlife Reserve (TWR), Lahad Datu, Sabah, with the objectives to study (i) the diversity of aquatic invertebrates across different land use, (ii) the composition of aquatic invertebrates in different habitats and microhabitats in the stream, and (iii) the relationship between invertebrates and the water quality of the stream. Sampling was done at Sg. Lipad which flows across the secondary forest area and plantation area. Kick net method was used to sample the aquatic invertebrates for 14 continuous days in January to February 2015. A total of 3,579 individuals were sampled consisting of 76 families from eight orders, in both of the land uses. The diversity of aquatic invertebrates in the secondary forest was found to be slightly higher than plantation area with H’= 3.213 and H’= 3.188 respectively. The aquatic invertebrates were also found to be more abundant in riffle habitat, and the least in pool habitats. The diversity for pool habitat, however, was the highest among all other habitats with H’= 3.709. Both physico-chemical parameters and biotic indices indicated that the invertebrate communities were affected by the water quality in the surroundings, and may be used for rapid assessment of water quality at TWR.



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Andy R. Mojiol

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. This study aimed to assess the health of main tree in the Kota Kinabalu City Centre, Sabah. In this study, principal evaluation standards were made by using visual observation of trees or Visual Tree Assessment (VTA). This study was conducted to identify any effect of damage or defect on trees via the observation of trees at their roots, stems, branches and leaves. There were five zones in the study area, namely from KK Lama and Jesselton Point (Zone 1) to Pasar Besar. The tree health parameters were evaluated from the presence of pests and diseases, trees health, foliage colour, the growth rate of trees, infections of the trees and potential failure of tree roots. In this study, nine of pathogens, pests and diseases of trees were observed, which were termites, fungi, aphid, mushrooms, epiphytes, parasites, ants, weeds and Whiteflies. This study showed that there were 23 species from the 688 stand of trees in the study area. The study found that the state average foliage colour was normal, a moderate growth rate and infection of the tree was still under controlled. The potential failure of tree root was found in low level as well. In a nutshell, the overall health of trees was found to be in good and moderate levels. This study was conducted as a reference in health detection of tree for The City Hall management (DBKK) and also as a reference for University students in conducting tree health assessment.

KEYWORDS. Tree health assessment, roadside tree, Kota Kinabalu City Centre, Sabah


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Woon Zhan Wen dan Mustapa Abd. Talip

Program Geografi, Fakulti Kemanusiaan, Kesusasteraan dan Warisan,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
e-mel: zhanwenwoon@yahoo.com

ABSTRAK Peranti pengiraan rasteradalah satu utiliti yang sangat berguna untuk melaksanakan pelbagai tugas yang berkaitan dengan grid.Tanah runtuh adalah pergerakan jisim batuan, tanah atau debris yang menuruni cerun di bawah pengaruh graviti. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti di mana kawasan potensi berlaku tanah runtuh dengan menggunakanperanti pengiraan raster.Kajian ini telah menggunakandua parameter yang diutamakan iaitu kecerunan dan ketinggian. Berpandukan garis panduan Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan, kawasan ketinggian yang melebihi 1,000 meter dari aras laut, dan nilai kecerunan yang melebihi 35 sudut adalah dikira sebagai kawasan larangan untuk aktiviti manusia. Oleh itu, dengan menggunakan peta topografi yang telah didigitalkan (georeference)dengan menggunakan perisian ArcGIS telah membahagikan seluruh jalan kepada enam zon, dan setiap zon mempunyai 10 kilometerserta menggunakanperanti pengiraan rasteruntukmenghasilkan kawasan potensi berlakunya tanah runtuh. Hasil analisis mendapati bahawa kawasan yang berpotensi berlaku tanah runtuh adalah di kawasan Zon 4 iaitu sebanyak 0.086 peratus (0.811 km 2) yang berada di sekitar Kampung Madsangoh dan Kampung Tenompok. Dapatan kajian berdasarkan perisianArcGIS telah menyediakan data yang dalam bentuk pengiraanraster,sekaligus menghasilkan peta potensi tanah runtuh mengikut kawasan yang telah dizonkan.Hasil daripada peta terbitan (georeferenced) ini juga mampu dijadikan sumber rujukan baharu kepada pelbagai agensi dan jabatan tempatansebagai sumber rujukan serta sebagai kajian lanjutan pada masa akan datang.

KATA KUNCI Tanah Runtuh, GIS,Peranti Pengiraan Raster.


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VOLUME 39, Issue 1


Husni Mubarok, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Ibnu Maryanto

Olumide Isaac Fakolujo1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2Efere Martins Obuotor3, and Victor Folorunsho Olaleye2*

Joko Sulistyo*and Sohaib Nazir

Andy R. Mojiol

Jephte Sompud1*, Emily A. Gilbert1, Chirra Snoriana Mobik1, and Paul Yambun


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Jephte Sompud1*, Emily A. Gilbert1, Chirra Snoriana
Mobik1, and Paul Yambun2

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.
E-mail: jephte@ums.edu.my

2Research and Education Division, Zoology Unit, Kinabalu Park, P.O. Box 10626, Kota Kinabalu 88806, Sabah, Malaysia


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify the species offrogs that can be found at streams, ridges and disturbed habitats of Gaya Island. Field sampling was carried out for 16 nights consecutively starting from 18thJanuary until 3rd February 2013. This research was conducted using the standard method of Visual Encounter Survey. The sampling effort for this study was 53 hours. Six sites representing three different frogs’ habitats were selected, namely streams, ridges and disturbed areas. The transect line with dimensions of 10m x 100m was used for the sampling survey. The results show that there were five species of frogs from two families that were present in Gaya Island. The five species were Inger’s dwarf frog (Ingerana baluensis), Grass frog (Fejervarya limnocharis), Mangrove frog (Fejervarya cancrivora), Green paddy frog (Hylarana erythraea) and Dark-eared tree frog (Polypedates macrotis). The highest number of frogs caught was in the stream area, consisting of 69 individuals, followed by 18 individuals at the disturbed area and two individuals at the ridges. This preliminary study indicated that there was a relationship between frog species diversity with the variety of the habitat sites. These findings present a baseline data for the frog species in Gaya Island. Future studies should be encouraged in order to have an in-depth understanding of the frogs’ natural habitats in Gaya Island.

KEYWORDS. Frogs, Gaya Island, North Borneo, Sabah, Species diversity.



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  • Sompud, J., Immit, A.R. & Lakim, M. 2013. The preliminary Survey of Avifauna in Gaya Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 65(4), pp. 295-299
  • Sompud, J., Igau, O. A., Mojiol, A.I., Gilbert, E.A., Mobik, C.S., Megat Amir & Mohd HIsyamuddin K. 2016. Impacts of Development on Avifauna at Gaya Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Sabah Parks Nature Journal, 10, pp. 9-14.
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Andy R. Mojiol
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.

Email : andy@ums.edu.my


ABSTRACT Kota Kinabalu City has several urban parks, which has become the centre of urban green space. However the function of the urban park is still not fully recognized. In addition, the enlightenment concept of urban forestry is still unclear in view of the public. This study aims to provide an assessment of the functions of each park in the city of Kota Kinabalu via public perception. Furthermore, it also aims to identify on public awareness about urban forestry concept. There are eight parks that were selected as the location of the study. The Parks comprise ofpublic and pocket parks that are maintained solely by the Kota Kinabalu City Hall. The sampling method used in this study is convenience sampling with questionnaires involving 160 respondents, of whom the target group are the park visitors. The results of the study show a total of 153 (95.6%) respondents agreed that each park has distinct and separated functions. It also shows that urban parks such as Prince Philip Public Park, Teluk Likas Park, Tun Fuad Stephen Public Park, and Ujana Rimba Public Park have recreation as the main function, meanwhile Tugu Petagas Public Park, Kampung Air Pocket Park, and Lintasan Deasoka Pocket Park have aesthetic as the main function, whilst the Signal Hill Park is found to serve as soil erosion control. In addition, a total of 123 (76.9%) of respondents understood the concept of urban forestry as planning and management of trees in urban area. As a conclusion, recreation and aesthetic are the main functions for all of the selected urban parks in the city of Kota Kinabalu city. Besides that, it is found that most of the public are aware of the existence ofurban forest concept in the city of Kota Kinabalu.

KEYWORDS. Public awareness, urban forest park, urban forest, and Kota Kinabalu, Sabah



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Joko Sulistyo*and Sohaib Nazir
Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author; Tel.; +6088-320000; Fax : +6088320259 E-mail; jokosulistyo@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Purpose of this study was to synthesize polyphenol glycoside as transfer products that may have some biological activities, by application of transglycosylation reaction in the present of polyphenolic compound which was extracted from Moringa oleifera leaves as its acceptor and different flours as its substrate for the transglycosylation. The reaction was catalyzed by glucosyltransferase derived from fungal culture of Trichoderma viridae as a source of crude enzyme. The formation of transfer products was determined using TLC and HPLC which exhibited that polyphenol glycoside could be synthesized through the enzymatic reaction. The study had shown that substrates such as starch, maltodexrin, corn flour, wheat flour, rice flour and cassava flour were also as potential substrates to synthesis the polyphenol glycoside in the presence of polyphenolic extract as acceptor. The result of HPLC analysis presented that the isolated glycosides had retention times and concentration of 1.446 (0.0017 mg/ml), 1.431 (0.14mg/ml), and 1.474 (0.012mg/ml), respectively, as compared to the retention time of arbutin (1.474) that was applied as authentic standard. Observation using 1H NMR as well as 13C NMR showed that structures of the transfer products were identified as gallic acid- 4-O-β-glucopyranoside, ellagic acid-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, and catechin-4’-O-gluco pyranoside, respectively. IC50 value of EAGP for DPPH was 46.12µg/ml as compared to ascorbic acid (35.96µg/ml), BHT (39.73µg/ml) and α-tocopherol (42.62µg/ml) respectively, while IC50 value ofEAGP for ABTS was 64.01µg/ml as compared to ascorbic acid (30.13µg/ml), BHT (38.09µg/ml) and α-tocopherol (54.84µg/ml) respectively, whilst IC50 value of EAGP for H2O2 was found to be 51.90µg/ml while for BHT, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol were 44.18µg/ml, 47.18µg/ml, and 49.57µg/ml, respectively.


KEYWORDS. Trichoderma viridae, transglycosylation, Moringa oleifera, polyphenol




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  • Sulistyo, J., Rahayu, RD. and Handyani, R. (2008). Sinthesis of polyphenol glycosides by using maltodextrin through enzymatic transglycosylation reaction of bacterial strain. Proceedings of international seminar on chemistry, 679-686.
  • Sulistyo, J., Handayani, R. and Rahayu, R.D. (2014). Assay for transglycosylation Reaction of Xanthomonas campestris on carbohydrate sources. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(6): 1-7.
  • Teixeira, E.M.B., Carvalho, M.R.B., Neves ,V.A., Silva, M.A. and Arantes-Pereira, L.(2014). Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. Food Chemistry, 147: 51 –54.
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Olumide Isaac Fakolujo1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2Efere Martins Obuotor3, and Victor Folorunsho Olaleye2*
1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: volaleye@oauife.edu.ng; +234-803-404-5185


ABSTRACT. The effect of varying concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.05 and 1.0% v/v) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil on the growth performance and biochemical changes in the serum and liver of 144 Clarias gariepinus Juveniles stocked into 12 glass aquaria at the rate of 12 fish per tank in triplicate for 90 days was assessed. The growth performance indices of the fish juvenile over the 90 days of toxic exposure revealed that the mean weight gained, specific growth rate, and total feed intake of the fish specimen decreases with increase concentration of the WSF of crude oil. However, 10% and 20% mortality were recorded in the fish exposed to 0.5% and 1.0% WSF of crude oil respectively. The activity of ALT and AST in the serum of the fish were significantly higher (p<0.05) with the increased concentration of WSF of crude oil while the ALT and AST activity of the liver of the fish juveniles irrespective of the added concentration of WSF of crude oil showed no significant differences (p>0.05). The study concluded that WSF of crude oil had adverse effects on the growth performance, blood serum and liver activities in C. gariepinus juveniles.

. Crude oil, Growth performance, Serum, Enzymes, Fish, Pollution



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Husni Mubarok, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Ibnu Maryanto
1Bogor Agricultural University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, W1L5, Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia
2Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Zoology Division, Research Center for Biology, J1. Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM 46, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia Corresponding author; Dyah Perwistasari-Farajallah, Cell; +62 89638616507,

Email; navy.rock@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. This study aims to analyze karyotypes of Sulawesi’s small mammals with Giemsa banding technique. Five fruit bats species (Boneia bidens, Dobsonia viridis, Styloctenium wallacei, Thoopterus nigrescens, Thoopterus suhaniahae) and eight rat species (Bunomys andrewsi, Bunomys chrysocomus, Bunomys heinrichi, Paruromys sp., Rattus dommermani, Rattus exulans, Rattus hoffmanni, Taeromys celebensis) from Mt. Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi were analyzed. Karyotypes of three species in this study were described for the first time. There were two species of bats and one species of rats showed the best of karyotypes. B. bidens has 2n = 30, FN = 53, FNa = 50, sub metacentric and telocentric for X and Y chromosomes respectively. T. suhaniahae has 2n = 38, FN = 64, FNa = 60 and metacentric X chromosomes. R. hoffmanni has 2n = 44, FN = 61, FNa = 59 and telosentric X chromosomes.

KEYWORD. Karyotypes, 2n, FN, Metacentric, Telocentric


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Volume 38, Issue 2


A Short Review of Isoindigo Acceptor for Conjugated Polymeric Photovoltaics
Shu Er Tan, Wahidah Zabidi and Mohd Sani Sarjadi*

Characterization of Different Metal Oxide Promoted Alumina Catalyst
- S. M . Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, Duduku Krishnaiah, F .A . Lahin, and C. Ramlan

Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subrings
Mikhled, Okleh Alsarahead, Abd Ghafur, and Ahmad

On the General Solution of 2th Order Linear Differential Equation
J. López-Bonilla,G. Posadas-Durán, and O. Salas-Torres.

On the Roots of the Legendre Laguerre, and Hermite Polynomials
S. Álvarez-Ballesteros, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez

Relationship between Water Quality & Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Abundance in Tambunan District, Sabah.
Nur Ashiqin Abdul Hamid, Maria Lourdes T. Lardizabal, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Estherpeni Stephen and Maznah Mahali

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Shu Er Tan, Wahidah Zabidi and Mohd Sani Sarjadi*
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This paper focussed on the recent development of conjugated polymers that contains isoindigo as acceptor moiety in the application of copolymeric solar cell. In the past decade, various modifications have been done either on the isoindigo acceptor itself or incorporated the isoindigo with different donor moieties. Recently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of this isoindigo-based polymeric photovoltaics have achieved up to ~7%. Hence, it is a promising acceptor for the photovoltaics and is expected to break through the recent PCE achievement in the future. This review briefly summarized the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers that have been investigated by the past researches.

KEYWORD. Isoindigo; Conjugated copolymers; Polymeric solar cells; Small molecules.



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Characterization of Different Metal Oxide Promoted Alumina Catalyst

S.M. Anisuzzamana,b,*, Awang Bonob, Duduku Krishnaiahb, F. A. LahinbC. Ramlanb
aEnergy Research Unit (ERU),
bChemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Correspondence author. Tel: +6088-320000 ext. 3222, Fax: +6088-320348, E-mail address: anis_zaman@ums.edu.my; dr.anis.ums@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. In this study, different metal oxide alumina promoted catalysts were prepared and characterized. All the catalysts (CaO/Al2O3, CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3MnO/Al2O3, NiO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3) were prepared using the incipient wetness impregnation method followed by drying and calcination. The characterization of all six samples of catalysts was done to determine the surface morphology, porosity, functional group, thermal stability, metal content and particle size distribution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of samples showed that there were pores on the surface of the alumina. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that copper oxide alumina promoted (CuO/Al2O3) had the high porosity which is 36.77 m2/g followed by zinc oxide (ZnO/Al2O3), calcium oxide (CaO/Al2O3) nickel oxide (NiO/Al2O3) manganese oxide (MnO/Al2O3) and ferric oxide alumina promoted (FeO/Al2O3) catalysts. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the presence of by-product existed in all catalysts. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis showed the presence of Cu, Fe and Zn in the CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3, while Ca was absent in CaO/Al2O3Besides, through thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), all the catalysts showed a slight decrease in weight which can be considered as a stable catalyst. The particle size distribution analysis using the Zetasizer showed the particle size mean based on the intensity of CaO/Al2O3, CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3MnO/Al2O3, NiO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3 were 2305 nm, 5560 nm, 5560 nm, 1281 nm, 1281 nm and 3580 nm, respectively.

KEYWORDS. Biofuel, metal oxide promoted alumina catalyst, wet incipient impregnation method



  • Aliyu, A. S., Ramli, A. T.,Saleh, M. A. 2014. Environmental impact assessment of a new nuclear power plant (NPP) based on atmospheric dispersion modeling. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 28 (7): 1897-1911.
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Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subrings

Mikhled1* Okleh Alsarahead, Abd Ghafur1 Ahmad
1School of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author’s email: mekhledsarheed@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we defined the complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring and introduced some new concepts like Intuitionistic fuzzy sets and homogeneous complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Then, we investigated some of characteristics of complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring. The relationship between complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring and intuitionistic fuzzy subring is also investigated. It is found that every complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring yields two intuitionistic fuzzy subring. Finaly, we defined the image and inverse image of complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring under ring homomorphism, and thus studied their elementary properties.

KEYWORDS. Intuitionistic fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy subring, homogeneous complex intuitionistic fuzzy set, complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring.



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  • Alsarahead, M. & Ahmad, A. 2017a. Complex Fuzzy Subgroups, Applied Mathematical Sciences, 11 (41):2011-2021.
  • Alsarahead, M. & Ahmad, A. 2017b. Complex Fuzzy Subrings, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, accepted for publication.
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  • Banerjee, B. & Basnet, D.K. 2003. Intuitionistic fuzzy subrings and ideals, The Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, 11 :139-155.
  • Zadeh, L.A. 1965. Fuzzy sets, Information and Control, 8 :338-353.

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On the General Solution of 2th Order Linear Differential Equation

J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, O. Salas-Torres
ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 4, 1er. Piso, Col. Lindavista CP 07738, CDMX, México.
Email: lopezb@ipn.mx

ABSTRACT. We employ a method of factorization to obtain the general solution of the second order linear differential equation, which is an alternative procedure to the usual Variation of Parameters method of Lagrange. We consider that our approach can be adapted to linear differential equations of the third and fourth order.

KEYWORDS. Linear differential equation of second order, Variation of parameters, Factorization method.


  • A. Hernández-Galeana, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the second order linear differential equation, Pure and Appl. Maths. Lett. 2 (2014) 31-34.
  • G. Bahadur Thapa, A. Domínguez-Pacheco, J. López-Bonilla, On the linear differential equation of second order, Prespacetime Journal 6, No. 10 (2015) 999-1001.
  • G. Krishna Srinivasan, A note on Lagrange’s method of variation of parameters, Missouri J. Math. Sci.19 (2007) 11-14.
    J. H. Caltenco, J. López-Bonilla, J. Morales, G. Ovando, On an iterative method to solve 2th order homogeneous linear differential equations, Inform. Sci. Comput. No. 1 (2014) 1-8.
  • A. Hernández-Galeana, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the second order linear differential equation, Pure and Appl. Maths. Lett. 2 (2014) 31-34.
  • J. López-Bonilla, A. Zaldívar-Sandoval, J. Yaljá Montiel, 2th order linear differential operator in its exact form, J. Vect. Rel. 5, No. 1 (2010) 139-141.
  • J. López-Bonilla, S. Vidal-Beltrán, S. Yáñez-San Agustín, Homogeneous linear differential equation ofsecond order, Prespacetime Journal 7, No. 13 (2016) 1786-1788. J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, O. Salas-Torres, Variational principle for, Prespacetime Journal 8, No. 2 (2017) 226-228.
  • J. López-Bonilla, B. Man Tuladhar, B. Moreno-Ley, On the 3rd. order linear differential equation, Kathmandu Univ. J. Sci. Eng. & Techn. 8, No. 2 (2012) 7-10.
  • T. Quinn, S. Rai, Variation of parameters in differential equations, PRIMUS 23, No. 1 (2012) 25-44.
  • V. Barrera F., J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the particular solution of Prespacetime Journal 7, No. 12 (2016) 1677-1679.
  • Z. Ahsan, Differential equations and their applications, Prentice-Hall, New Delhi (2004).
  • Z. Ahsan, R. Cruz-Santiago, J. López-Bonilla, Linear differential equations of third and fourth order, Aligarh Bull. Maths. 31, No. 1 (2012) 5-7


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On the Roots of the Legendre Laguerre, and Hermite Polynomials

 S. Álvarez-Ballesteros, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez,
ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 5, 1er. Piso, Col. Lindavista CP 07738, CDMX, México

ABSTRACT. For several orthogonal polynomials, Cohen proved that their roots are the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. In this paper, we give examples of this Cohen’s result for the Legendre, Laguerre, and Hermite polynomials, which are useful in applications to quantum mechanics and numerical analysis.

KEYWORDS: Laguerre and Hermite polynomials, Leverrier-Takeno’s technique, Legendre polynomials.



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  • J. López-Bonilla, B. Man Tuladhar, R. Peña-Rivero, Relationship between wave functions of two-dimensional hydrogen atom in parabolic and polar coordinates, J. Sci. Res. 54 (2010) 219-22.
  • J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, H. Torres-Silva, On the Legendre polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 6, No. 8 (2015) 735-739.
  • J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, On the Saha’s generating function for the Hermite polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 7, No. 13 (2016) 1805-1806.
  • J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, V. M. Salazar del Moral, On some identities for the Laguerre polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 8, No. 10 (2017) to appear.
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  • R. Cruz-Santiago, J. López-Bonilla, S. Yáñez-San Agustín, A note on the Laguerre polynomials, Prespacetime Journal 8, No. 4 (2017) 511-512.
  • R. E. Greenwood, J. J. Miller, Zeros of the Hermite polynomials and weights for Gauss mechanical quadrature formula, Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 54, No. 8 (1948) 765-769.
  • V. Barrera-Figueroa, J. López-Bonilla, J. Sosa, Multiple root finder algorithm for Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials via Newton’s method, Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae 33 (2006) 3-13.
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Relationship between Water Quality & Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Abundance in Tambunan District, Sabah

Nur Ashiqin Abdul Hamid1*, Maria Lourdes T. Lardizabal1, Hiroyuki Takaoka2Estherpeni Stephen1 & Maznah Mahali
1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University Malaysia Sabah, Jln. UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur
Corresponding author: Nur Ashiqin Abudul Hamid Email: ashiqinhamid@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. A study to investigate the relationship between black flies (Simuliidae) pupa abundance and physio-chemical parameters such as velocity, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solid was conducted at Tambunan district, Sabah. A total of six rivers were selected as sampling stations. Five sampling points located at a distance of 5-10 meters were established in each sampling station. Sampling was conducted every fortnight for a duration of six months from October 2015 until March 2017. Samples of black flies larvae and pupae were manually collected from substrates consisting of grasses, plant roots and plastics which were found stuck in between the rocks with running water area. Water quality parameters that were measured during every sampling, include water temperature, velocity, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolve solids (TDS). Results from this study showed that The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed two PC’s which had eigenvalues >1.0 and together accounted for 78% total variability of the physio-chemical parameters. PC-1 which accounted 56% of variability defined a normal temperature (23-250C), high water velocity, high dissolved oxygen, low conductivity and low total dissolved solid. While PC-2 explained 22% of the variability was related to water pH. Pearson’s correlation result shows that only velocity had a significant relationship with the abundance of black flies (r=0.512, p<0.01), while other parameters did not show any significant relationship with its abundance. In conclusion, results from this study revealed that only water velocity had a significant relationship with the abundance of black flies.

KEYWORDS: Black flies, physio-chemical parameters, Tambunan.



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VOLUME 38, Issue 1

List Of Papers
Paul Njenga Waithaka1*, Francis B. Mwaura1, John M. Wagacha1, Eliud M. Gathuru2, Francis M. Ngumbu2 and Anderson K. Mwangi2

Julyus-Melvin Mobilik1,*, Teck-Yee Ling1Mohd-Lokman Bin Husain2, & Ruhana Hassan1

Emily A. Gilbert, Jephte Sompud*, Cynthia B. Sompud

Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud*, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert

Zulherry Isnain1, *Junaidi Asis1, Hazerina Pungut2, Sanudin Tahir2, Baba Musta1 & Hardianshah Saleh2


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