Volume 43 (Issue 2), September 2022

– Nor Azira Mohd Radzi1, Latisha Asmaak Shafie2, Nor Alifah Rosaidi3, Razlina Razali4, Lew Ya Ling5 and Ku Azlina Ku Akil6

– Hardianshah Saleh1, Siam Jia Quan2, Muhammad Jaya Padriyamzah Bin Abdul Hamid3

Recovery of used lubricating oil by glacial acetic acid with two different activated carbons
– S. M. Anisuzzaman1,2* and Mohammad Hafiz Jumaidi2

Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) onto activated carbon derived from coffee waste
– S.M Anisuzzaman1, Collin G. Joseph2,*, Mintshe Tan2

– Ismail Abd Rahim1, Hardianshah Saleh2, Baba Musta2, Immas Janggok2 & Amy Natasha Arjali2




Nor Azira Mohd Radzi1, Latisha Asmaak Shafie2, Nor Alifah Rosaidi3, Razlina Razali4, Lew Ya Ling5 and Ku Azlina Ku Akil6

1, 2,3,4,5 Academy of Language Studies, 

6 Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, 

Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, 

Kampus Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

ABSTRACT.  Opinion leaders or social influencers possess the conviction of their followers in making personal and professional decisions. Their posts or sharing on social media may strongly influence their followers’ decision to practise some environmental actions in their daily lives. They are often labelled as the current thought leaders among the Millennials. Considering the critical environmental issues faced, many social influencers play important roles to show their willingness to change human destructive behaviours and conserve the environment for the future. Realising their influence on their followers, these environmental influencers relentlessly encourage their followers to support their missions. Thus, the study attempted to profile successful environmental leaders among social influencers from the views of their followers. The study was a qualitative multiple case study on five informants. The informants volunteered to participate and were from 100 university students. They were interviewed in a written semi-structured interview and researchers could reach them if clarification was needed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Peer debriefing was used to increase trustworthiness. The findings revealed that effective environmental leaders possessed these criteria: a) credibility; b) generosity; c) responsible creators; d) influential figures; e) trust builders. The informants believed that these social influencers are as real as offline leaders even though they only knew these social influencers in online contexts. The ability of environmental social influencers to reach and convince multiple audiences to participate and support various environmental initiatives via social media platforms made them powerful thought leaders.

 KEYWORDS. social influencers, followers, environmental awareness, pro-environmental behaviours



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Hardianshah Saleh1, Siam Jia Quan2, Muhammad Jaya Padriyamzah Bin Abdul Hamid3 


1Faculty Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

2Faculty of Science and Computer Informatic, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS.

3Wullesdorf Resources Sdn Bhd.

ABSTRACT. Seawater intrusion is known to be a major problem that influences the quality of groundwater within coastal regions globally. The groundwater table within the coastal area is usually close to the ground surface due to low topography or human development activities such as land reclamation and man-made drainage systems that keep the water table at constant low level. Electrical resistivity method is one of the geophysical methods that has been extensively used to investigate seawater intrusion due to the high electrical conductivity contrast produced by saline water. Papar, Sabah is located at the west coastal region of Sabah and is generally formed by Crocker formation and Quaternary alluvium. The sedimentary rock of Crocker Formation mainly consists of thick sandstone unit, interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale unit and shale unit. A total of Five 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) methods were carried to image and model the subsurface within the research area to investigate the possibility of seawater intrusion. The ERI results are also supported by four groundwater samples and detailed lithologies from the borehole. Interpretation of the results divided the research area into three main zones of seawater intrusion potentials. Zone 1 is considered the highest potential of seawater intrusion, Zone 2 interpreted as potential extended zone or mixing zones between seawater and fresh water and finally Zone 3 did not indicate any low resistivity or potential of seawater intrusion. The seawater intrusion map produced from this research initiated and divided the potential zones based on the occurrence of seawater in the subsurface.

KEYWORDS. Geophysics, seawater intrusion, groundwater.



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S.M. Anisuzzaman1,2* and Mohammad Hafiz Jumaidi2

1Energy Research Unit (ERU),

2Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: anis_zaman@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT: Recovery of used lubricating oil (ULO) generally comprises cleaning, drying, and adsorption in order to eliminate water, sludge, and impurities. As the ULO is one of the hazardous wastes generated in various industrial and automotive industries, it should not be used or disposed of in ways that are harmful to the environment. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of activated carbons (ACs) which are coconut AC (CAC) and rice husk AC (RHAC) in recovering the ULO. Glacial acetic acid was used in the acid treatment as it does not react with the base oils, and the ACs were substituted with the clay used in the clay treatment. The recovered oil was analysed through analytical characterizations, which are Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). FTIR analysis revealed that the properties of the untreated ULO samples improved by removing the carbonyl compounds. In terms of metal removal, RHAC had shown better performance than CAC as it gave low metal contents in AAS. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the optimum process parameters that would maximise the efficiency of the process. There are two factors that were manipulated, which are the weight of adsorbent (A) and speed of mixing (B). For CAC, the optimum value of factors A was 4.00 g while the B was set to 524.89 rpm.  Meanwhile, for RHAC, the optimum value of factors A was 2.29 g while the B was set to 4000 rpm. CAC has higher desirability with 0.83 compared to RHAC with 0.69.  

KEYWORDS: Acid clay treatment; activated carbon; optimization; response surface methodology; used lubricating oil


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S M Anisuzzaman1, Collin G. Joseph2,*, Mintshe Tan

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

2Industrial Chemistry Programme, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,

 Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: collin@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. In this study, activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from coffee waste via a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method after impregnation by zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The effect of impregnation ratio (IR) on the physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was studied. Characterizations of the generated ACs were carried out to determine the percentage of yield, moisture and ash contents, pH, surface chemistry studies and morphological attributes. The results showed that the yield of AC decreased from 41.16% to 37.12% with the increase in IR. As for moisture and ash contents, the percentage values ranged from 4.18% to 6.16% and 9.73% to 10.34% respectively. Meanwhile, the AC samples were slightly acidic with pH values varying between 6.06 and 6.56. The adsorption capacity increased from 16.8 mg/g for AC1 to 21.72 mg/g for AC4. The AC produced with an IR of 4:1 (AC4) had the highest adsorption capacity of 2,4-DCP, which was 21.72 mg/g. The maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area of the best produced AC4 was found to be 951.10 m2/g, which is by far the highest achieved in comparison with other coffee waste-derived ACs reported in the literature. N2 adsorption-desorption graph showed a Type I isotherm, indicating that the AC4 was a microporous solid with chemisorption properties. Langmuir isotherm model was found to be a better fit for the adsorption data when compared to the Freundlich isotherm model.   Pseudo-second order kinetic model was best described for the kinetic of 2,4-DCP adsorption. This proved that 2,4-DCP adsorption by AC4 was a chemisorption process. 

KEYWORDS: Activated carbon, two-stage activation, 2,4-dichlorophenol, coffee waste, adsorption 


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Ismail Abd Rahim1, Hardianshah Saleh2, Baba Musta2, Immas Janggok2 & 

Amy Natasha Arjali2

1Natural Disasters Research Unit, School of Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2Geology Program, Faculty of Sciences & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding Author: Ismail Abd Rahim1. E-mail: arismail@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT: The Zen Garden Resort and its surrounding area are part of the “Kundasang Landslide Complex” and were experiencing reactivation of old landslides on 10 April 2011. Consequently, more than 80 room units of the resort, ten buildings, homes, and local roads were destroyed, uplifted, and damaged as well as disrupted day traffic. About 500m in length and 200m in width of the slope area were slides for 25m. The vertical fall movement in the head section of the landslide is 25m. There is no direct relationship between the 2015 Ranau earthquake and with earlier rotational clay slide of the 2011 Zen Garden Resort landslide. The causing and triggering factor for landslides are generally varied and are always characterized as region-specific and site-specific. Thus, this study was conducted to unravel the triggering and causal factors for the rotational clay slide of the 2011 Zen Garden Resort landslide. The methodology consists of desk study, remote sensing study, geological mapping, geodynamic mapping, laboratory, and data analysis. This study found that the landslides were triggered by prolonged moderate to occasional heavy rainfall. The causal factors are divided into natural factors (tectonic uplift, weak materials, weathered materials, sheared or jointed materials, adversely oriented mass discontinuity or structural discontinuity, and contrast in permeability) while the artificial factor consists of excavation of the slope or its toe, cut and fill, subterranean erosion/ piping, irrigation or water leakage from utilities and deforestation or vegetation removal.

Keywords Zen Garden Resort, landslides, Kundasang landslide complex, colluvium, geodynamic, trigger and causal factors


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Volume 43 (Issue 1, March 2022)


– N. Murshid1, A.Z. Yaser1*, M. Rajin1, S. Saalah1, J. Lamaming1, M. Taliban2



– Mohd Al Mussa Ugak, Nur Aqeela Syuhadah Aji, Abu Zahrim Yaser*, Junidah Lamaming, Mariani Rajin and Sariah Saalah



– Ahmed Abubakar*1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Khadijah Musa Yaro3, Aminu Suleiman Zangina4



– Flornica A. Ahing. and N. Wid.



– Walter J. Lintangah1*, Vilaretti Atin1 and Khalid Nurul Izzah Izati1


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N. Murshid1, A.Z. Yaser1*, M. Rajin1, S. Saalah1, J. Lamaming1, M. Taliban2

1 Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
2 Persatuan Pemborong dan Peruncit Sayur Bumiputera Kundasang, Sabah
Corresponding author : Abu Zahrim Yaser , Email : zahrim@ums.edu.my
noorafizahmurshid@gmail.com (N. Murshid)

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Composting is considered agronomically, ecologically, and practically beneficial, with the end product being an organic fertilizer or soil conditioner rich in nutrients for the soil. This study aims to investigate the effects of adding chicken manure (CM) to vegetable waste (VW) and rice husk (RH) composting. This is a pioneering study on Kundasang composting, as well as addressing the vegetable waste problem in the community. The composting process was studied for 20 days in a 37-L laboratory composter reactor box with passive aeration. Four mixtures were investigated, each with a VW: RH (1:2) ratio and a different additive of CM (0%, 1%, 2.5% and 5%). The composting process’s performance shows that Mix-3 (2.5 % CM) is ideal compared to other mixtures, with the highest temperature achieved at 41ºC as early as day 1, resulting in a 28.12% organic matter (OM) loss. The OM loss value results show that Mix-3 (28.12%) > Mix-2 (26.14%) > Mix-1 (16.55%) >Mix-4 (13.33%). The maximum temperature reached was 41ºC, and the Mix-3(41.3ºC)>Mix-1(41.1ºC)>Mix-2(41.0ºC)>Mix-4(40.7ºC) and decreasing near to ambient. The reduction percentage shows Mix-3 (13.92%) > Mix-2 (13.45%) > Mix-4 (9.24%) > Mix-1 (8.93%). Thus, with the optimum addition of chicken manure, the degradation is reflected in the high moisture content reduction rate. In conclusion, using CM as an additive has a significant impact on composting VW.


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This work is supported financially by grant SDK0102-2019 from Universiti Malaysia Sabah


Mohd Al Mussa Ugak, Nur Aqeela Syuhadah Aji, Abu Zahrim Yaser*, Junidah Lamaming, Mariani Rajin and Sariah Saalah

Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: Abu Zahrim Yaser Email: zahrim@ums.edu.my

Received 15th March 2021; accepted 24th March 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Composting is a controlled biological process that converts organic matter into soil conditioner and kinetic modelling is necessary to design the composting system. The aims of this study are to determine the optimum compost mixture and turning frequency for food waste and dry leaves composting, as well as to evaluate an elemental kinetic model based on volatile solids (VS). The elemental kinetics of the process were determined using pseudo zero-, first-, second- and n-order equations. Three different feedstock mixtures were used, namely 40% FW (Mix A), 60% FW (Mix B) and 80% FW (Mix C). Four sets of experiments (TF for every 0, 1, 3, and 5 days) were conducted to investigate the turning frequency (TF). The composting process was carried out in a compost bottle for 40 days. Based on organic matter loss, Mix B and C had the highest OM loss, indicating an acceptable initial compost mixture. The turning frequency of every three days resulted in the highest organic matter loss. Kinetic analysis was performed using coefficient correlation (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and modelling efficiency (EF). Application of the second-order model resulted in good responses for compost mixture Mix B and C. Meanwhile, the n-order model successfully estimated the VS changes for the 3-days TF.

KEYWORDS. Compost, soil conditioner, modelling, second order, n-order


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Ahmed Abubakar*1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Khadijah Musa Yaro3, Aminu Suleiman Zangina4

1Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
3Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
4National Biotechnology Development Agency, North-West Zone, Katsina, P.M.B. 2140, Nigeria.
Correspondence author: Ahmed Abubakar Email: abubakar8550483@gmail.com

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Environmental protection starts with individuals, groups, and communities at large. The government at its level formulates, regulates, and enforces laws and policies governing environmental protection as well as the punishment of violators through designated legal institutions. The aim of this review is to examine the role of environmental institutions in protecting the environment in Nigeria. The findings revealed that national policies for the protection of the environment came into existence only in 1991. This study employed literature review and combed through articles published from 2000 to 2022 in the contexts of Nigeria. The objective of this study is to highlight the role that environmental institutions play in managing the environment in Nigeria. There are numerous environmental challenges in Nigeria, including air pollution, water pollution, lead poisoning, poor waste management, deforestation, desertification, wind erosion, and flooding, all of which have harmed the environment and the population. National policies for the sustainable use of the environment include the National Environmental Policy, National Policy on Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment Act, Endangered Species (Control of International Trade and Traffic) Act, and the National Drought Plan. The national regulatory bodies include the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency; the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency; the Federal Ministry of Environment; the Directorate of Petroleum Resources; the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority; the Federal Ministry of Water Resources; and the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency, among others. The study recommends that the government strengthens the national policies, laws, and regulations on the environment to meet the challenges of the 21st century, strengthens the capacity of environmental law enforcement personnel, and provides necessary logistics to aid in executing their functions. Governments should inject more funds into environmental protection and stakeholder engagement.

KEYWORDS: Environment, Law, Policy, Governance, Nigeria


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Flornica A. Ahing. and N. Wid.

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA
Corresponding author : Newati, Wid Email: newati@ums.edu.my

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT. Chitosan, a biopolymer that consist of various properties, has multiple applications throughout industries where one of the promising applicarion of chitosan is its preservative effect. Chitosan, a bioactive natural edible coat can be considered a promising alternative to overcome the freshness of bananas during storage. Throughout this study, observations were made on weight loss, peel colour changes and titratable acidity for the effect of chitosan coating. In terms of weight loss, among four different concentration of chitosan coating solution, the 2.0% chitosan coating solution showed the lowest weight loss percentage which is 22.6% compare to others which were 1.0% (26.00%), 0.5% (26.20%) and 1.5% (34.24%) significantly. The result marked variations between the uncoated banana and coated banana at different concentrations of chitosan coating solution (ASC) which are 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00%. The peel color changes were significantly different during the first and final day of observation for each concentration. A significant variation was observed for the titratable acidity of the banana fruit where the lowest value obtained was 0.812% during coating with 2.0% chitosan coating solution while the highest titratable acidity was observed during the coating with 1.5% chitosan solution which is 2.11%. To summarize, banana coating with chitosan can decreased the weight loss of the banana fruit as well as improve the peel color changes during 12 days of storage. Besides that, banana coating with chitosan can also lower the value of titratable acidity of the banana fruit compared to uncoated bananas.

KEYWORDS: chitosan, shelf life, coating, titratable acidity.


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Walter J. Lintangah1*, Vilaretti Atin1 and Khalid Nurul Izzah Izati1

1International Tropical Forestry Program, Faculty of Tropical Forestry,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author : Walter J. Lintangah, , Email :walterjl@ums.edu.my

Received 13th November 2021; accepted 22nd November 2021
Available online 20th May 2022

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many activities, including tourism and recreational activities. This study determines the  local communities’ perceptions of local recreational activities or staycation based on the natural resources in Sabah during the pandemic. Using the convenience sampling method, the questionnaire survey was distributed to respondents through social media and email. Respondents including students, government, and private sectors were from different socio-demographics. Most of them preferred recreational activities based on nature- panorama activities, followed by those who chose extreme activities such as hiking, cultural base recreation, river-based activities, leisure vacation and jungle trekking. The respondents opined that recreational activities could generate income for the state’s economy. They perceived that the assistance provided by the government could help recover the present state to its original condition. Among the elements that needed special attention and improvement were related to the safety of visitors, the cleanliness of the surrounding recreation sites, the landscape beautification and basic infrastructure facilities. Among the roles that the government could contribute to stimulating and uplifting the tourism and recreation sectors include funding and finance allocation to help the industry players, promotion and publicity, upgrading and maintenance of facilities such as infrastructures and enforcement of related laws and policies. Reviving the local tourism is promising as long as the public observe the state’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

KEYWORDS: COVID-19 Pandemic, Natural Resources-Based Recreation, Local Communities, Staycation, Tourism



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Volume 42 (Issue 2), September 2021

- Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3

– Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3

– Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc


-  Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah

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Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3
1,2,3 Department of Mathematics University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Corresponding author: Sohana Jahan, Email; sjahan.mat@du.ac.bd

Received 30th April 2021 ; accepted 22nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Iris Recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. In Iris Recognition, a person is identified by the iris region of the eye using image processing, pattern matching and the concept of neural networks. A typical Iris Recognition system involves three steps, Iris pre-processing, Iris feature extraction and Iris Classification. Most of the researchers use Daugman’s integro-differential operator and Daugman’s rubber sheet model for pre-processing. A number of feature extraction methods can be used to achieve a reasonable recognition rate. In our work we have used Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling proposed recently for feature extraction that is used directly on iris image regarded as high dimensional vector. The method uses radial basis function to select some images as centres and then projects higher dimensional vectors into a lower dimensional space using an Iterative majorization algorithm. The projection is done in such a way that data of same class projects together and also it selects the most effective features that leads to better recognition rate. This approach excludes the pre-processing that saves computation time. We have compared our approach with Principal Component Analysis and implemented on a benchmarking data MMU iris data. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is used for the classification. Numerical experiments show that Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling successfully achieves better recognition and outperforms some other approaches such as Principal Component Analysis with and without pre-processing of iris images.

KEYWORDS. Multi-Dimensional Scaling, Radial Basis Function, Iterative Majorization, Iris recognition, Biometrics, k-NN.

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Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah
Quality and Environmental Assessment Unit, Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), 6, Persiaran
Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author. Email: aainaa.syahirah@mpob.gov.my

Received 4th May 2021 ; accepted 15nd November 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Cooking oils are used for daily cooking as well as salad dressing, in processed food, and other various uses. The physico-chemical properties of cooking oils can affect the quality of foods and hence must be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of palm-based cooking oils (refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein). The analyses were conducted on a total of 20 different brands of cooking oil packed in plastic pouches, which were randomly chosen from a local market. The physico-chemical properties of the cooking oils investigated include moisture and impurities (MI), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), slip melting point (SMP), Lovibond colour, and free fatty acid (FFA). The properties were compared with known standards for refined oils such as Malaysian Standard and Codex Alimentarius Standard. Analysis showed that MI, IV, and SMP of all brands were within the requirements set by Malaysian Standard for RBD palm olein. The PV, Lovibond colour, and FFA values of several brands deviated from the Malaysian Standard. Meanwhile, the PV and FFA of all brands of the cooking oil tested were within the value designated by the Codex Standards. The physico-chemical properties of RBD palm olein cooking oils tested in this study were of acceptable and good quality and are considered suitable for consumption. The quality of cooking oil should be regularly monitored to avoid the use of adulterated oil.

KEYWORDS. RBD palm olein, cooking oil, physico-chemical properties, plastic pouch packed

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Fadzlina Abdullah1*, Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli1, Fumiya Niikura2 And Zulina Abd. Maurad1
1Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43 000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Functional Material Science Research Laboratory, Lion Corporation, 2-1 Hirai 7-Chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 132-0035, Japan. *Corresponding author : fadzlina@mpob.gov.my

Received 8th May 2021 ; accepted 18nd October 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Palm-based methyl ester sulphonate (MES) is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable resources by sulphonation of palm methyl ester with sulphur trioxide and can be used as an alternative to the conventional linear alkylbenzenesulphonate. MES has been shown to possess favourable environmental characteristics, water hardness tolerance, with excellent detergency and foaming properties that are useful in detergent industry. Due to its great potential as surfactant in consumer products, it is crucial to determine its physical properties to protect consumer safety and the ecosystem. Physical properties are important aspects of a chemical because they play a significant role in determining its possible applications. Therefore, this study aims to determine the physical properties of various homologues of palm-based MES, such as C12-, C14-, C16-, and C16:18MES. The selected physical properties included physical appearance (form, colour, and odour), functional groups via Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, density, melting point, and flammability. The sulphonation process to produce MES was confirmed through sulphonationcation interactions from the FTIR spectra. A better understanding of the properties and applicability of MES in different areas can be assessed through the study of their physical properties. Information on these properties is important, whereby the specifications of palm-based MES can be used to find the best formulation for its applications and support the regulatory requirements of importing countries, e.g., Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACh), to facilitate market penetration.

KEYWORDS.Anionic surfactant; Palm-based; methyl ester sulphonate; Detergent; properties.

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Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3, Handry Mujih4, Geofarry Gunsalam4Dasini4, Ezron Gerald5, Rayzigerson Rodney Chai1, Mohd Fadil6, Venly6, Federica Karolus6

1Institute of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Tropical Forestry, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
3Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
4Herbarium, Botany Section, Reseacrh and Education Division, P.O. Box 10626, 88806, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
5Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
6Danum Valley Field Centre, Block 3, Ground Floor, MDLD 3286/3287, Fajar Centre, 91112, Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia. Email: rasyidahj@yahoo.com

Received 9th Julai 2021 ; accepted 15nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. In the vicinity of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, a study was conducted to determine the plant community and its composition in the habitat of Rafflesia sp. and its host, Tetrastigma sp. A total of 5 circular-shaped plots each with a fixed radius of 20 meters, were located around Kinabalu Park, namely in Losou Podi, Losou Minunsud, Sayap Substation, Langanan and Gansurai. The Rafflesia species detected in Kinabalu Park during the present study were Rafflesia pricei and R. keithii. Overall, 19 Rafflesia individuals were detected, which comprised of 3 flowers and 16 buds. A total of 20 scars from former dead flowers and buds were obtained on the host, where they possessed an average diameter of 2.2-4.8 cm from the five plots. There were 778 individuals recorded for plant community, belonging to 111 genera, 53 families and 250 species. The total tree density was 1238 individuals/ha, where the family Lauraceae (11.05%) had the highest individuals followed by Annonaceae (8.61%). Although the species Baccaurea lanceolata were found in all study plots, the species Xantophyllum macrophyllum has the most individuals detected (3.60%) in the plant community habitats. The value of the Shannon-Wiener Index was H’=3.23 and the Evenness Index is low, E=0.10. The percentage of family similarity between plots was high (SBC=70.19–48.23%), but the percentage of species similarity between plots was very low (SJ=4.31–1.54%). This study shows that both the species of Xanthophyllum macrophyllum and Baccaurea lanceolata have a relationship with the habitat ofRafflesia in Kinabalu Park, as both species were located nearest to the Rafflesia’s host. Moreover, these two species were seen to be well associated with Tetrastigma since the Tetrastigma was observed to climb several trees of these species in the plot.

KEYWORDS. Ecology, Kinabalu Park, plant community, Rafflesia, Tetrastigma.

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Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc
a Nextgreen Pulp and Paper Sdn Bhd, R&D Department, Menara LGB, Jalan Wan Kadir 1, Taman Tun Dr Ismail, 60000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
b Department of Forestry Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97000 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
c Department of Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *Corresponding author: johnkeen@upm.edu.my

Received 31 st July 2021 ; accepted 4nd October 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Paper waste is one of many wastes produced by men leading to more landfill spaces to dispose of them. Improper management of wastes can become a nuisance and can become a source of pollution and environmental degradation. This research aimed to determine the effect of different paper wastes (white paper, newspaper, and brown paper) as bedding materials on the efficiency of vermicomposting and nutrient content of the vermicompost. Vermicompost substrates (cow dung, vegetable waste and waste paper) were digested using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) for up to 68 days and were assessed across physical (temperature and weight loss) and chemical parameters (pH, macro- and micro-nutrients content). The vermicompost gave pH values ranging from 7.9 to 9.9 for different paper beddings. The temperature in all vermicompost piles averaged 26 to 34˚C, while
weight losses were recorded at 26 to 38%. Chemical analyses of all vermicompost substrates showed no significant difference for N, P, Fe, Cu and Mg contents. In contrast, the C:N ratio, K, Na, Ca, Zn and Mn of the vermicompost products were significantly different (P<0.05). Although vermicomposting using newspaper bedding recorded the shortest period to mature with most nutrient contents suitable for application on plants, the Cu content was too high, suggesting that the amount of newspaper used as bedding should be reduced and substituted with other organic substances such as crop residues. Vermicomposting using paper wastes as beddings for earthworm (E. eugeniae) shows a good potential of producing vermicompost that can be used as a soil amendment.

KEYWORDS: paper wastes, beddings, Eudrilus eugeniae, vermicompost, nutrient content

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Volume 42 (Issue 1), March 2021

– Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

– Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 , Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

– Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

– Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

– Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

Download Full Volume HERE


Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 ,

Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2GRISM Innovative Solutions, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Anurag University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500088, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: awangbono@gmail.com

**Corresponding author. E-mail: hardyvai14@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Fragrant rice is known to contain the aromatic compound of 2-Acetyl Pyrroline (2-AP). This compound has been known as a major compound that gives fragrant characteristics in rice. However, this compound is volatile and easily escapes from the rice upon the drying process. In order to recover the release of 2-AP from rice upon drying, a packed bed adsorption system is employed using treated agricultural waste as a solid adsorbent. The experimental adsorption study in a batch mode for 2-AP onto treated rice husk char (TRHC) was used as a case study for this present work. Influences of three operational parameters towards the dynamic adsorption of 2-AP onto TRHC in a packed bed column were investigated by measuring the breakthrough and saturation time and mass transfer zone. This study suggests the possibility of treated agricultural waste as an alternative to capture the lost 2-AP during the paddy drying process.

KEYWORDS. Adsorption; Aromatic rice; Breakthrough curve; Treated rice husk; Simulation



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