Volume 44 (Issue 1) 2023

Suzelawati Zenian and Amirah Ramizah Bibi Abdul Rasheed

Nur Nazleen Johari1, Chee Fuei Pien1, Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim2, Bailon Golutin3 & Jedol Dayou*1

Mohd Shafreen Mad Isa1 and Baba Musta2

Ahmad Fauzi Othman1, Mohd Fadzil Arshad2, Zakiah Ahmad2, Amran Shafie1, Junaiza Ahmad Zaki1, Nur Hannani Abdul Latif1, Mohd Azrul Naim3*

Roziah K1, Kok Shien N1, Farzana M.A1, Siti Fatimah S1, Azura A1

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Suzelawati Zenian and Amirah Ramizah Bibi Abdul Rasheed

Mathematics with Computer Graphics, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. A weather forecast is a prediction of weather phenomena in the future by collecting as much data as possible. Major worldwide climate studies include the breakthrough and interpretation of complicated weather patterns in order to successfully forecast varied weather events. It is quite complex to screen so many parameters from several factors to discover precise weather conditions. In this paper, a fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS) is applied for weather forecasting in Kota Kinabalu. There are 234 fuzzy rules being developed as the FRBS are constructed along and successfully implemented in MATLAB. Based on the results, the comparison between actual and forecast data shows moderate precision as the accuracy level is higher than the level of error analysis.

KEYWORDS. Weather events, fuzzy rule-based system, forecasting, fuzzy set.


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The authors would like to express their appreciation and gratitude to the Research Management Centre, Universiti Malaysia Sabah for the continued support


Nur Nazleen Johari1, Chee Fuei Pien1, Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim2, Bailon Golutin3 & Jedol Dayou*1

1 Energy, Vibration and Sound Research Group (e-VIBS), Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
2 Mathematics with Economy Programme, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
3 Department of Mineral and Geoscience Sabah, Locked Bag 2042, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Corresponding author. Email: jed@ums.edu.my; Tel: +6-088-320302; Fax: +6-088-435324.

ABSTRACT: Seismic monitoring networks are the crucial elements in strong motion seismology for effective risk reduction. Low scale lateral variation of high intensity ground movement caused by earthquakes will be detected more effectively with densely located networks. However, the limitations of developing such project are rooted in expensive costs associated with the construction and installation in addition to bulky size of the conventional seismic observation system. Recently, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has being recognized in the applications of seismological and earthquake engineering due to the high precision obtained in these micron size semiconductor instruments and cheaper alternative for traditional seismic detector. ADXL345 is a type of digital triaxial MEMS accelerometer that is ideal for measurement of low-frequency vibrations and static accelerations of gravity, which makes it suitable for ground motion detection. Thus, this study aims at calibrating ADXL345 sensor that is required as sensing component in an affordable earthquake monitoring system with the Earthquake Benchmarking System (Penanda Aras Gempa Bumi, PAG) available in the inventory of Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia, Sabah. Soil vibrations in EW (east-west or x-axis), NS (north-south or y-axis), and UD (up-down or z-axis) directions during random forces hit on the surface are recorded by both accelerometers. Acceleration magnitudes recorded by PAG and ADXL345 are extracted and data exploration is performed. Predominantly, ADXL345 measurements in horizontal and vertical ground movements are on a higher scale than the reference device. Subsequently, evaluation by using descriptive statistical analysis is chosen to produce numerical equations for data correction operations. İmplementation of the mathematical functions in ADXL345 for observing land movements in EW, NS, and UD directions resulted in decreasing the range values of output readings. Higher approximation of magnitudes of ground motion with the PAG system is achieved.

KEYWORDS. affordable, ground motion, calibration, descriptive analysis



  • D’alessandro, A., D’anna, R., Greco, L., Passafiume, G., Scudero, S., Speciale, S., & Vitale, G. (2018). Monitoring Earthquake through MEMS Sensors (MEMS project) in the town of Acireale (Italy). 5th IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems, INERTIAL 2018 – Proceedings, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISISS.2018.8358143.
  • D’Alessandro, A., Luzio, D. & D’Anna, G. (2014). Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment. Advances in Geosciences, 40, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-40-1-2014.
  • Analog Devices. (2009). Digital Accelerometer: Data Sheet ADXL345. https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/ADXL345-EP.pdf.
  • Jena, R., & Pradhan, B. (2018). A novel model for comparing Peak Ground Acceleration derived from three attenuation laws using an integrated GIS technique in Sabah area, Malaysia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(9), 191–200. https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.9.2018.p8127.
  • Khoiry, M. A., Hamzah, N., Osman, S. A., Mutalib, A. A. & Hamid, R. (2018). Physical Damages Effect on Residential Houses Caused by the Earthquake at Ranau, Sabah Malaysia. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 10(5), 414 – 418. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJET.2018.V10.1094.
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  • Scudero, S., D’Alessandro, A., Greco, L. & Vitale, G. (2018). MEMS technology in seismology: A short review. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environmental Engineering, EE 2018 – Proceedings, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1109/EE1.2018.8385252.
  • Sigcha, L., Pavón, I., Arezes, P., Costa, N., De Arcas, G. & López, J. M. (2018). Occupational risk prevention through smartwatches: Precision and uncertainty effects of the built-in accelerometer. Sensors (Switzerland), 18(11): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113805.
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  • Tanırcan, G., Alçık, H. & Beyen, K. (2017). Reliability of MEMS accelerometers for instrumental intensity mapping of earthquakes. Annals of Geophysics, 60(6): SE673. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-7501.

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Collaboration of Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia, Sabah and fund from UMSGreat GUG0334-1/2019 in this research is greatly acknowledged.


Mohd Shafreen Mad Isa1 and Baba Musta2

1, 2 Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Email: shafreen@live.com.my1, babamus@ums.edu.my2

ABSTRACT This paper highlights the geochemical compositions and mineralogy of the alteration zone of the andesitic host rock and volcanic breccia in Bukit Mantri area near Balung, Tawau, Sabah, where a gold mining project is now taking place. Minerals identified by XRD analysis include quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, kaolinite, hematite, and goethite, while thin section analysis confirms the abundance of pyrite. XRF and ICP-OES analyses suggest a significant concentration of SO3, Cu, Pb, Zn and As, with average values of 2.68wt%, 254μg/g, 236.9μg/g, 232.9μg/g, and 30.6μg/g, respectively, in the hydrothermally altered andesite. The widespread presence of pyrite and higher concentration of SO3 provide insights for environmental control for its higher acidity generation potential. Meanwhile, secondary minerals such as iron and aluminium oxides and silicate minerals may provide acid buffers and reduce the dispersion of constituents.

KEYWORDS geochemistry, mineralogy, hydrothermal alterations, gold mineralisation, Bukit Mantri



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Ahmad Fauzi Othman1, Mohd Fadzil Arshad2, Zakiah Ahmad2, Amran Shafie1, Junaiza Ahmad Zaki1, Nur Hannani Abdul Latif1, Mohd Azrul Naim3*
1Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Bandar Jengka, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak, Pahang
2College of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor
3Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang

ABSTRACT. Oil palm trunk is one of the promising biomass materials due to the high volume of unused waste components and increasing worldwide demand to replace conventional wood. This study investigated the feasibility of using ethanol as a drying agent for oil palm trunks with different dimensional surfaces (radial, tangential and longitudinal sections). The radial shrinkage percentage for the outer layer is 1.50% (untreated) and 1.22 % (treated). In comparison, the inner layer of the untreated sample was recorded at 2.54 % shrinkage and the treated sample was at 2.29%. The tangential sample for the inner untreated sample shows 2.60% and the treated sample shows 2.40%. The same pattern of shrinkage was shown for the tangential section on the outer layer as 1.81% and 1.10% of the untreated and treated sample respectively. For the longitudinal surface, the inner layer section of the untreated sample was recorded at 0.39% compared to the treated sample at 0.25%. In comparison, a longitudinal surface section for the outer layer of the untreated sample was recorded at 0.38%, while the treated sample was recorded at 0.33% shrinkage percentage. The effect of ethanol treatment on the shrinkage is significantly different between different sections (P-value: 0.01) and between the outer and inner layers (P-value: 0.02). The result suggested that ethanol treatment could be an option for the oil palm trunk drying process. Dried oil palm trunks can be utilized as a potential substitution for biomass and wood to produce various products.

 Oil palm trunk (OPT), shrinkage percentage, moisture content, ethanol


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This study was funded by “Dana Dalam Negeri (DDN) Lestari Khas Fasa 2 with Grant Number: 600-TNCPI 5/3/DDN(06)(009/2021).


Roziah K1, Kok Shien N1, Farzana M.A1, Siti Fatimah S1, Azura A1

1Civil Engineering Studies, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


ABSTRACT. The recent agricultural and industrial waste reduction research has focused on monetary, sustainable environment, and technological considerations. Discarded raw materials such as rice husk ash, fly ash, coir fiber and silica fumes were widely explored and successfully utilized as blending elements for cement.  Current studies have proved that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) produced from sugar production has a pozzolanic reaction due to the high substance of amorphous silica in this raw material. This research would boost the insight of potential blending agents that can reduce the cost and stabilize problematic soil. This study intends to evaluate the effect of SCBA blended cement on improved soil’s mechanical properties, including the shear strength and the compressibility of the treated soil. Unconfined Compressive Strength test was conducted to attain the compressive behavior, while the One-Dimensional test was performed to examine the compressibility behavior. The tested samples with SCBA show a beneficial effect in terms of both compressive strength and compressibility.  This study proved that SCBA could be applied at least as a partial substitute to the Portland cement.

KEYWORDS. Sugarcane bagasse ash, pozzolanic reaction, compressive strength, compressibility


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