Volume 41 (Issue 2, September 2020)

The Composition of Chitin, Chitosan and its Derivatives in the Context of preparation and Usability – A Review.
- Syaheera Md Zin1, Adnin Awalludin1, Newati Wid1, Kamarulzaman Abd. Kadir2 and Mohd Sani Sarjadi1,*

Estimating Mangrove Above-ground Biomass (AGB) in Sabah, Malaysia Using Field Measurements, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Landsat Data
- Charissa Jasmine Wong1, Daniel James1, Normah Awang Besar1 and Mui-How Phua1*

Quantifying Aboveground Biomass over 50-Ha Tropical Forest Dynamic Plot in Pasoh, Malaysia Using LiDAR and Census Data
- Hamdan Omar1*, Muhamad Afizzul Misman1  and Yao Tze Leong1

Tourist Satisfaction at Nature-based Tourism Destination around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
- Talib, H.

Tourist Satisfaction Dimension in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia
- Timothy Ajeng Mereng[1], Hamimah Talib1* and Jennifer Chan Kim Lian[2]
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Syaheera Md Zin1, Adnin Awalludin1, Newati Wid1, Kamarulzaman Abd. Kadir2 and Mohd Sani Sarjadi1*

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Enviro Clean Energy Sdn. Bhd. Suite, Level 5, Bangunan Perkim, No. 150, Jalan Ipoh, 51200, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. The demand for chitosan polymer in domestic and industrial use is increasingly rising. The applications are widely used in the fields of nutrition, cosmetics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, water treatment and agriculture. Normally, the preparation of chitin comes from a bio-waste source and requires three chemical processes including demineralisation, deproteinisation, and discolouration. Meanwhile, the preparation of chitosan from chitin is through the process of deacetylation. The production of chitosan and its derivatives have covered various fields, including synthetic polymers. It has also become a medium and alternative material helping to solve many problems including being able to save time, cost and energy in the production of a material. Then, there will be a positive impact on environmental sustainability and biomedical engineering. The chitin derivatives resulting from deacetylation of chitosan are also flexible enough to be lysosomal enzymes, which can be used as carriers of active drug substances in the body system. Various efforts and research have been carried out on the development of chitosan-based polymeric materials, in particular organic polymers. Chitosanbased polymers can be used as an alternative to replace petroleum and natural gas resources. Besides, it is easy to dispose of, degrades quickly, has a short shelf life and is environmentally friendly. It is proven as many previous reports and studies on the synthesis, characteristics and use of these polymers around the world. The purpose of this review is to explain the properties, methods of preparation and use of chitin, chitosan and its derivatives.

KEYWORDS. Chitosan, chitin, deacetylation, polymer


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Charissa J. Wong1, Daniel James1, Normah A. Besar1 and Mui-How Phua1*

1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author; Mui-How Phua, Telephone Number: +60 (0)88 320000,
Email; pmh@ums.edu.my


ABSTRACT. Mangroves are one of the most productive forest ecosystems and play an important role in carbon storage. We examined the use of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to estimate mangrove Above-ground Biomass (AGB) in Sabah, Malaysia. SRTM-DEM can be considered as Canopy Height Model (CHM) because of the flat coastal topography. Nevertheless, we also introduced ground elevation correction using a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generated with GIS and coastal profile data. We mapped the mangrove forest cover using Landsat imagery acquired in 2015 with the supervised classification method (Kappa coefficient of 0.81). Regression analyses of field AGB and the CHMs resulted in an estimation model with the corrected CHM as the best predictor (R2: 0.73) and cross-validated Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 19.70 Mg ha-1 (RMSE%: 11.60). Our study showed Sabah has a mangrove cover of 268,631.91 ha with a total AGB of 44,163,207.07 Mg in 2015. This substantial amount of carbon storage should be monitored over time and managed as part of the climate change mitigation strategy.

KEYWORD. Mangroves, SRTM-DEM, Landsat, Above-ground Carbon, Borneo.



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Hamdan Omar*, Muhamad Afizzul Misman and Yao Tze Leong

Forestry and Environment Division,
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding author : Hamdan Omar, Phone No.; +603-62797200,
Email : hamdanomar@frim.gov.my

ABSTRACT. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) instruments have been widely used for quantification of forest biomass. This study investigated the relationships between LiDAR data and aboveground biomass (AGB). The study area is located at the 50-ha dynamic plot in a primary forest area of the Pasoh Forest Reserve, a lowland dipterocarp forest, a type of evergreen tropical moist forest. A number of variables have been produced from the LiDAR metrics. These variables were correlated with AGB that were derived from census data. The study found that the CHM and a few matrices are the best predictors for AGB and therefore used for the estimation of AGB in the entire study area. The estimated AGB ranged from 52 to 718 Mg ha-1, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of about 59 Mg ha-1. The study suggests that the AGB estimates produced by this study are the most accurate – with an accuracy of 83% based on the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) – as compared to other remotely-sensed based estimates in the study area.

KEYWORD. Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS); 50-ha dynamic plot; LiDAR; biomass


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Hamimah Talib1*
1 Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Corresponding author; Hamimah Talib, Cell; +6016 9980701, Email; hamima@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has been famed as Nature Resort City where nature-based destinations in and around the city have been the major tourist attractions. Nonetheless, the question whether the visitors are satisfied with their experience at the major nature-based tourism destination or otherwise is still vague. The purpose of this study is to understand the recreational experience and satisfaction of tourist in selected nature-based tourism sites in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. A mixedmethod approach incorporating quantitative data derived using Driver’s Recreation Experience Preference Scale, and qualitative data using Herzberg’s Critical Incident Technique were deployed. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive non-probability sampling with the participation of 240 tourists. Factor analysis was run on the quantitative dataset to derive the major outcome which is the set of profile on tourist recreational experience. While content analysis was conducted on the qualitative dataset to derive explanation for tourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Triangulation between the two types of datasets strengthens the major finding which is the tourist satisfaction in nature-based tourism destination around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The finding of this study is crucial for satisfaction enhancement and critical for identification of areas to be improved, subsequently solutions to be recommended.

KEYWORDS. Tourist Satisfaction, Nature-Based Tourism



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Timothy Ajeng Mereng1, Hamimah Talib1* and Jennifer Chan Kim Lian2
1 Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
2 Borneo Tourism Research Centre, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Corresponding author; Hamimah Talib, Cell; +6016 9980701, Email; hamima@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to identify the tourist satisfaction dimensions in Kinabalu Park as a World Heritage Site, to come out with the tourist satisfaction indicators for responsible rural tourism framework at Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia, in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimension. One of the data sources to achieve this aim is the in-depth interview session with the tourist in Kinabalu Park, specifically the mountain climbers. The interview was conducted with Herzberg’s Critical Incident Technique (CIT), which is a method that asks the respondents to recall their exceptionally good feeling as well as their exceptionally bad feeling during their experience in Kinabalu Park. The data were analyzed thematically based on Driver’s Recreation Experience Preference (REP) scale to identify the tourists’ satisfaction dimension. Our study found that “scenery enjoyment” was the most prevalent domain for a satisfying experience or the source of good feeling. Along with the “scenery enjoyment”, there were other three emerging experience domains that could contribute to understanding the tourist satisfaction dimensions in Kinabalu Park.

KEYWORDS. Tourist Satisfaction Dimension, Kinabalu Park



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