Volume 42 (Issue 2), September 2021

- Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3

– Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3

– Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc


-  Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah

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Sohana Jahan1, Sonia Akter2 and Farhana Ahmed Simi3
1,2,3 Department of Mathematics University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Corresponding author: Sohana Jahan, Email; sjahan.mat@du.ac.bd

Received 30th April 2021 ; accepted 22nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Iris Recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. In Iris Recognition, a person is identified by the iris region of the eye using image processing, pattern matching and the concept of neural networks. A typical Iris Recognition system involves three steps, Iris pre-processing, Iris feature extraction and Iris Classification. Most of the researchers use Daugman’s integro-differential operator and Daugman’s rubber sheet model for pre-processing. A number of feature extraction methods can be used to achieve a reasonable recognition rate. In our work we have used Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling proposed recently for feature extraction that is used directly on iris image regarded as high dimensional vector. The method uses radial basis function to select some images as centres and then projects higher dimensional vectors into a lower dimensional space using an Iterative majorization algorithm. The projection is done in such a way that data of same class projects together and also it selects the most effective features that leads to better recognition rate. This approach excludes the pre-processing that saves computation time. We have compared our approach with Principal Component Analysis and implemented on a benchmarking data MMU iris data. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is used for the classification. Numerical experiments show that Supervised Regularized Multidimensional Scaling successfully achieves better recognition and outperforms some other approaches such as Principal Component Analysis with and without pre-processing of iris images.

KEYWORDS. Multi-Dimensional Scaling, Radial Basis Function, Iterative Majorization, Iris recognition, Biometrics, k-NN.

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Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli*, Mohd Azmil Mohd Noor, Fadzlina Abdullah
Quality and Environmental Assessment Unit, Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), 6, Persiaran
Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author. Email: aainaa.syahirah@mpob.gov.my

Received 4th May 2021 ; accepted 15nd November 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Cooking oils are used for daily cooking as well as salad dressing, in processed food, and other various uses. The physico-chemical properties of cooking oils can affect the quality of foods and hence must be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of palm-based cooking oils (refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein). The analyses were conducted on a total of 20 different brands of cooking oil packed in plastic pouches, which were randomly chosen from a local market. The physico-chemical properties of the cooking oils investigated include moisture and impurities (MI), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), slip melting point (SMP), Lovibond colour, and free fatty acid (FFA). The properties were compared with known standards for refined oils such as Malaysian Standard and Codex Alimentarius Standard. Analysis showed that MI, IV, and SMP of all brands were within the requirements set by Malaysian Standard for RBD palm olein. The PV, Lovibond colour, and FFA values of several brands deviated from the Malaysian Standard. Meanwhile, the PV and FFA of all brands of the cooking oil tested were within the value designated by the Codex Standards. The physico-chemical properties of RBD palm olein cooking oils tested in this study were of acceptable and good quality and are considered suitable for consumption. The quality of cooking oil should be regularly monitored to avoid the use of adulterated oil.

KEYWORDS. RBD palm olein, cooking oil, physico-chemical properties, plastic pouch packed

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Fadzlina Abdullah1*, Nur Aainaa Syahirah Ramli1, Fumiya Niikura2 And Zulina Abd. Maurad1
1Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43 000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Functional Material Science Research Laboratory, Lion Corporation, 2-1 Hirai 7-Chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 132-0035, Japan. *Corresponding author : fadzlina@mpob.gov.my

Received 8th May 2021 ; accepted 18nd October 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Palm-based methyl ester sulphonate (MES) is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable resources by sulphonation of palm methyl ester with sulphur trioxide and can be used as an alternative to the conventional linear alkylbenzenesulphonate. MES has been shown to possess favourable environmental characteristics, water hardness tolerance, with excellent detergency and foaming properties that are useful in detergent industry. Due to its great potential as surfactant in consumer products, it is crucial to determine its physical properties to protect consumer safety and the ecosystem. Physical properties are important aspects of a chemical because they play a significant role in determining its possible applications. Therefore, this study aims to determine the physical properties of various homologues of palm-based MES, such as C12-, C14-, C16-, and C16:18MES. The selected physical properties included physical appearance (form, colour, and odour), functional groups via Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, density, melting point, and flammability. The sulphonation process to produce MES was confirmed through sulphonationcation interactions from the FTIR spectra. A better understanding of the properties and applicability of MES in different areas can be assessed through the study of their physical properties. Information on these properties is important, whereby the specifications of palm-based MES can be used to find the best formulation for its applications and support the regulatory requirements of importing countries, e.g., Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACh), to facilitate market penetration.

KEYWORDS.Anionic surfactant; Palm-based; methyl ester sulphonate; Detergent; properties.

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Rasyidah Wahab1, Kartini Saibeh2, Shamsul Khamis3, Handry Mujih4, Geofarry Gunsalam4Dasini4, Ezron Gerald5, Rayzigerson Rodney Chai1, Mohd Fadil6, Venly6, Federica Karolus6

1Institute of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Tropical Forestry, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
3Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
4Herbarium, Botany Section, Reseacrh and Education Division, P.O. Box 10626, 88806, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
5Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
6Danum Valley Field Centre, Block 3, Ground Floor, MDLD 3286/3287, Fajar Centre, 91112, Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia. Email: rasyidahj@yahoo.com

Received 9th Julai 2021 ; accepted 15nd August 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. In the vicinity of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, a study was conducted to determine the plant community and its composition in the habitat of Rafflesia sp. and its host, Tetrastigma sp. A total of 5 circular-shaped plots each with a fixed radius of 20 meters, were located around Kinabalu Park, namely in Losou Podi, Losou Minunsud, Sayap Substation, Langanan and Gansurai. The Rafflesia species detected in Kinabalu Park during the present study were Rafflesia pricei and R. keithii. Overall, 19 Rafflesia individuals were detected, which comprised of 3 flowers and 16 buds. A total of 20 scars from former dead flowers and buds were obtained on the host, where they possessed an average diameter of 2.2-4.8 cm from the five plots. There were 778 individuals recorded for plant community, belonging to 111 genera, 53 families and 250 species. The total tree density was 1238 individuals/ha, where the family Lauraceae (11.05%) had the highest individuals followed by Annonaceae (8.61%). Although the species Baccaurea lanceolata were found in all study plots, the species Xantophyllum macrophyllum has the most individuals detected (3.60%) in the plant community habitats. The value of the Shannon-Wiener Index was H’=3.23 and the Evenness Index is low, E=0.10. The percentage of family similarity between plots was high (SBC=70.19–48.23%), but the percentage of species similarity between plots was very low (SJ=4.31–1.54%). This study shows that both the species of Xanthophyllum macrophyllum and Baccaurea lanceolata have a relationship with the habitat ofRafflesia in Kinabalu Park, as both species were located nearest to the Rafflesia’s host. Moreover, these two species were seen to be well associated with Tetrastigma since the Tetrastigma was observed to climb several trees of these species in the plot.

KEYWORDS. Ecology, Kinabalu Park, plant community, Rafflesia, Tetrastigma.

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Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar a, John Keen, Chubo b*, and Marina, Mohd. Top @ Mohd. Tahc
a Nextgreen Pulp and Paper Sdn Bhd, R&D Department, Menara LGB, Jalan Wan Kadir 1, Taman Tun Dr Ismail, 60000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
b Department of Forestry Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97000 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
c Department of Biology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *Corresponding author: johnkeen@upm.edu.my

Received 31 st July 2021 ; accepted 4nd October 2021
Available online 20th December 2021

ABSTRACT. Paper waste is one of many wastes produced by men leading to more landfill spaces to dispose of them. Improper management of wastes can become a nuisance and can become a source of pollution and environmental degradation. This research aimed to determine the effect of different paper wastes (white paper, newspaper, and brown paper) as bedding materials on the efficiency of vermicomposting and nutrient content of the vermicompost. Vermicompost substrates (cow dung, vegetable waste and waste paper) were digested using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) for up to 68 days and were assessed across physical (temperature and weight loss) and chemical parameters (pH, macro- and micro-nutrients content). The vermicompost gave pH values ranging from 7.9 to 9.9 for different paper beddings. The temperature in all vermicompost piles averaged 26 to 34˚C, while
weight losses were recorded at 26 to 38%. Chemical analyses of all vermicompost substrates showed no significant difference for N, P, Fe, Cu and Mg contents. In contrast, the C:N ratio, K, Na, Ca, Zn and Mn of the vermicompost products were significantly different (P<0.05). Although vermicomposting using newspaper bedding recorded the shortest period to mature with most nutrient contents suitable for application on plants, the Cu content was too high, suggesting that the amount of newspaper used as bedding should be reduced and substituted with other organic substances such as crop residues. Vermicomposting using paper wastes as beddings for earthworm (E. eugeniae) shows a good potential of producing vermicompost that can be used as a soil amendment.

KEYWORDS: paper wastes, beddings, Eudrilus eugeniae, vermicompost, nutrient content

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Volume 42 (Issue 1), March 2021

– Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

– Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 , Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

– Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

– Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

– Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

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Carla Goncalves De Olievera Sarmento1 , Mohd Hardyianto Vai Bahrun1,**, Jidon Janaun1 ,

Awang Bono2,*, Duduku Krishnaiah3

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2GRISM Innovative Solutions, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Anurag University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500088, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: awangbono@gmail.com

**Corresponding author. E-mail: hardyvai14@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Fragrant rice is known to contain the aromatic compound of 2-Acetyl Pyrroline (2-AP). This compound has been known as a major compound that gives fragrant characteristics in rice. However, this compound is volatile and easily escapes from the rice upon the drying process. In order to recover the release of 2-AP from rice upon drying, a packed bed adsorption system is employed using treated agricultural waste as a solid adsorbent. The experimental adsorption study in a batch mode for 2-AP onto treated rice husk char (TRHC) was used as a case study for this present work. Influences of three operational parameters towards the dynamic adsorption of 2-AP onto TRHC in a packed bed column were investigated by measuring the breakthrough and saturation time and mass transfer zone. This study suggests the possibility of treated agricultural waste as an alternative to capture the lost 2-AP during the paddy drying process.

KEYWORDS. Adsorption; Aromatic rice; Breakthrough curve; Treated rice husk; Simulation



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Siti Afida, I*; Noorazah, Z and Razmah, G

1Advanced Oleochemical Technology Division (AOTD), Malaysian Palm Oil Board,

6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

*Correspomdimg author. Email: siti.afida@mpob.gov.my


ABSTRACT. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is the concentration of surfactants above which micelles are formed. The effects of CMC of methyl ester sulfonates (MES) on ecotoxicological behaviour of freshwater organisms in predicting the risk levels contributed from the surfactant used were determined. The surface tension of palm-based MES with various carbon chain lengths (C12, C14 and C16) was measured to determine the CMC. Ecotoxicity tests were conducted on three different aquatic organisms: green algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata), freshwater crustacean (Daphnia magna) and freshwater fish (Tilapia nilotica). The effective concentration of MES that caused 50% fish mortality (LC50), crustacean immobilization (EC50) and algae inhibition (EC50) was determined. Through surface tension analyses, the CMC obtained for MES C12, C14 and C16 was 1000 mg/L, 900 mg/L and 12 mg/L, respectively. The LC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 were 391 mg/L, 22.6 mg/L and 12.6 mg/L, respectively, in fish. The crustacean EC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 were >100 mg/L, 77.6 mg/L, and 1.15 mg/L. Meanwhile, algae EC50 of MES C12, C14 and C16 was 541 mg/L, 399 mg/L and >10 mg/L, respectively. Relative comparison showed that D. magna was observed to be more sensitive compared to R. subcapitata and T. nilotica towards MES of the same chain length. A linear relationship was observed between CMC and ecotoxicity values. The lower the CMC value, the lower is the LC50 or EC50 value and the surfactant becomes more toxic. It is suggested that the CMC value can be used as a toxicity indicator for anionic surfactant by considering that the EC50 value of a surfactant will be reached before its CMC value.

KEYWORDS: CMC, Ecotoxicity, Aquatic organisms, Environment


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Nur Syamimi Zainudin* and Zaihasra Azis

1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, Jengka Campus,

26400 Bandar Tun Abdul Razak Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Email: nursyamimizainudin@uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Ascorbic acid, also known as Vitamin C cannot be synthesized by humans. Ascorbic acid is commonly found in a variety of vegetables and fruits such as mangoes, oranges, broccolis and lettuce. Hence, vegetables and fruits become the main sources of ascorbic acid to meet dietary intake. The differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) technique using glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as a working electrode and phosphate buffer at pH 4.2 as a supporting electrolyte has been proposed for ascorbic acid determination in natural and commercial fruit juices. The optimum instrumental conditions for electroanalytical determination of ascorbic acid by the proposed DPASV technique were initial potential (Ei) = 0 V, end potential (Ef)= 0.8 V, accumulation time (tacc) = 60 s, scan rate (v) = 0.125 V/s and pulse amplitude = 0.150 V. The anodic peak appeared at 0.3598 V. The curve was linear from 0.028 to 1.703 mM (R2=0.9999) with a detection limit of 0.0114 mM. The precisions in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) were 1.30%, 0.50% and 0.06%, respectively. The ruggedness of the proposed DPASV technique was tested with statistical F-test. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 73.65±1.70% to 101.93±1.65% were obtained for three different known concentrations of AA in the fruit juice samples. It can be concluded that the proposed technique is precise, accurate, rugged, low cost, fast and has the potential to be an alternative method for routine analysis of ascorbic acid in natural and commercial fruit juices.

KEYWORDS: Ascorbic Acid, Commercial Fruit Juice, Glassy Carbon Electrode, Voltammetry



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Ling Sin Yi1 , Junaidi Asis1 & Baba Musta1*

1Geology Program, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

* Corresponding author. Email: babamus@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. A total of fifty-three (53) sediment samples were collected from Usukan coastal beach to study the potential of pollution due to heavy metals in the marine ecosystem. The sediment samples were collected along the coastal beach using a core sampler. The ICP-OES analysis was used to identify the concentration of heavy metals in the marine sediment samples. The results of pH analysis showed the increase of pH from 5.69 to 8.48 from inland into the sea. The lowest moisture content was 4.99%, whereas the highest was 48.75%. The organic matter ranges from 0.30 to 6.73%. The sediment texture varies from sandy, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam texture. The decreasing rank ing order of heavy metals concentration is Fe (4476-29829 ppm) followed by Al (5803-8524 ppm) and Mn (103-504 ppm), which are still within the background values and standard limits. The assessment of Fe, Al and Mn contamination in sediment samples was performed by comparing with the allowable range of average background values and the standard limits from Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) in marine sediment. In conclusion, the results of quality assessment using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and pollution load index (PLI) showed that the sediment from Usukan beach has a very low contamination level that causes only mild pollution.

KEYWORDS. Geochemistry, Heavy Metal, Sediment Quality, Marine Environment



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Libao Yang, Suzelawati Zenian*, Rozaimi Zakaria

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

* Corresponding author: Suzelawati Zenian

Email: suzela@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Image enhancement is a significant field in image processing. This paper proposes an enhancement method based on an S-sharp function of grayscale transformation and neighborhood information. Firstly, a function is established based on the sine function. Then, the image threshold is added into the function. Finally, the result grayscales are modified by parameter, where parameter is determined by the image pixel neighborhood information. In general, in the result image, each pixel grayscale is determined by both the sine function with threshold and the parameter . In the experiment results, the NIEM method (we proposed) achieves better performance than the comparison algorithms. It gets the smallest MSE and the highest PSNR, SSIM. In image Lena test, MSE value:330.8151, PSNR value:22.9350, and SSIM value: 0.9451. In image Pout test, MSE value:132.0988, PSNR value:26.9218, and SSIM value: 0.9604.

KEYWORDS. Image enhancement, S-sharp function, Standard deviation, Threshold.



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