Volume 37, Issue 2 (Full)

Fuzzy Interpolation Rational Bicubic Bezier Surface
- Rozaimi Zakaria, Abd Fatah Wahab, R.U. Gobithaasan, Isfarita Ismail

Geological Mapping of Sabah, Malaysia, Using Airborne Gravity Survey
- Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, Hassan Jamil, Mohd Noor Isa, Azhari Mohamed, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Baba Musta, Rene Forsberg, Arne Olesen, Emil Nielsen, Abd Majid A Kadir, Ahmad Fahmi Abd Majid, Kamaludin Talib, Saiful Aman Sulaiman

Sorption and Characterization Studies of Activated Carbon Prepared from Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
- Collin G. Joseph, S.M. Anisuzzaman, Pak Yan Moh, E-W Amy Lim

Fabrication and Characterization of Cu2O/ZnO Thin Films for pn Heterojunction Devices
- Azmizam Manie@mani, Saafie Salleh, Fuei Pien Chee, Afisah Alias, Saturi Baco

Mercerized Natural Cellulose Based-Solid Polymer Electrolyte
-Jahimin Asik, Fauziah Abdul Aziz, Razali Idris


Jahimin Asik1, Fauziah Abdul Aziz2 and Razali Idris3
1School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
Email: jthan@ums.edu.my
2Universiti Pertahanan Malaysia
Email: afuziah@upnm.edu.my
3MARA University of Technology Perlis, Malaysia, 02600 Arau, Perlis

ABSTRACT. Cellulosic materials derived from three different types of local wood samples (sawmill woods sawdust, Acacia mangium and belian (Euxideroxilon zwagery) were extracted at atmospheric pressure using organosolv method. In an initial stage, the wood samples were delignified using peroxyacetic acid pulping to remove lignin. Then the pulp was bleached in 0.01 M solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with addition of 4% hydrogen peroxide of absolute dry pulp (ODP). Conversion to alpha-cellulose or mercerized cellulose was achieved by soaking bleached cellulosic materials in 17.5% solution of NaOH for 15 minutes at 25oC. The mercerized cellulose was thoroughly washed with large amount of distilled water until pH of the filtrate reached to natural, then vacuum dried at 60oC. From Scanning electron microscope (SEM) all mercerized woods cellulose were differ in microfibril size with high irregularity observed in sawmill sawdust. Formation of cellulose II was confirmed with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR) analysis. Preparation of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane was obtained by dissolving dry mercerized cellulose in molten 1 butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) in the presence of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) to produce a transparent solid gel film. All SPE membranes exhibit conductivity in the range of 3.6 x 10-6 to 5.7 x 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature. It was also observed that the conductivity of the SPE is affected by the size of cellulose microfibril and type of extraction. It was then further characterized with SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA.

KEYWORDS: Wood, Organosolv, Cellulose, mercerized, SPE, conductivity


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Collin G. Josepha*, S.M. Anisuzzamanb, Pak Yan Moha, E-W Amy Lima
aWater Research Unit, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
bChemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering,
University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +6 088 320000 ext. 2117; Fax: + 6 088 435324; e-mail: collin@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from cut pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) via semi-carbonization followed by physical activation using a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method. The best AC was obtained by using a temperature of 700°C and 5 hours of carbonization period. The percentage yield decreased with increasing activation temperature, whereas the activation time did not have a significant effect on the yield. With a moisture content and ash content of less than 10% and 1% respectively, this material was suitable for AC production. The BET surface area was measured at 515.41 m2/g, with a Type I isotherm and an H4-type adsorption hysteresis loop concurring that the AC was a microporous solid with chemisorption properties.

KEYWORDS. Activated carbon (AC), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5- DCP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), physical activation


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1Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, 1Hassan Jamil, 1Mohd Noor Isa, 1Azhari Mohamed
2Sanudin Hj. Tahir, 2Baba Musta,
3Rene Forsberg, 3Arne Olesen, 3Emil Nielsen
4Abd Majid A Kadir, 4Ahmad Fahmi Abd Majid
5Kamaludin Talib, 5Saiful Aman Sulaiman
1Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 50578 Kuala Lumpur
2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400
Kota Kinabalu,Sabah
3National Space Institute, Denmark Technical University, Copenhagen, Denmark
4Info-Geomatik, 81300 Skudai, Johor
5Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor

ABSTRACT. Airborne gravimetry is an effective tool for mapping local gravity fields using a combination of airborne sensors, aircraft and positioning systems. It is suitable for gravity surveys over difficult terrains and areas mixed with land and ocean. This paper describes the geological mapping of Sabah using airborne gravity surveys. Airborne gravity data over land areas of Sabah has been combined with the marine airborne gravity data to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage in order to produce the geological mapping. Free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps (density 2.67 g/cm3) have been derived from the airborne data both as simple ad-hoc plots (at aircraft altitude), and as final plots from the downward continued airborne data, processed as part of the geoids determination. Data are gridded at 0.025 degree spacing which is about 2.7 km and the data resolution of the filtered airborne gravity data were 5-6 km. The airborne gravity survey database for land and marine areas has been compiled using ArcGIS geodatabase format in order to produce the update geological map of Sabah.

KEYWORDS. Airborne gravimetry, gravity field, ArcGIS, geological mapping,


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Rozaimi1* Zakaria, Abd Fatah2 Wahab, R.U. Gobithaasan2, Isfarita3 Ismail
1Faculty Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS),
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
2School of Informatics and Applie d Mathematics,
3Institute of Oceanography and Environment,
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia.
Corresponding author’s email: rozaimi@ums.edu.my (Tel: 088-320000 ext: 5628,Fax: 088-320223)

ABSTRACT. This paper introduces fuzzy interpolation rational bicubic Bezier surface (later known as FIRBBS) which can be used to model the fuzzy data forms after defining uncertainty data by using fuzzy set theory. The construction of FIRBBS is based on the definition of fuzzy number concept since we dealing with the real uncertainty  data form and interpolation rational bicubic Bezier surface model. Then, in order to obtain the crisp fuzzy solution, we applied the alpha-cut operation of triangular fuzzy number to reduce the fuzzy interval among those fuzzy data points(FDPs). After that, we applied defuzzification method to give us the final solution of getting single surface which also knows as crisp fuzzy solution surface. The practical example also is given which represented by figures for each processes. This practical example take the fuzzy data of lakebed modeling based on uncertainty at z-axis(depth).

KEYWORD. Fuzzy number, rational bicubic Bezier surface, interpolation, alpha-cut, defuzzification.


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Azmizam Manie @ Mani *, Saafie Salleh, Fuei Pien Chee, Afishah Alias & Saturi Baco
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Corresponding author: azmizam.manie@yahoo.com; Tel: +6 014 874 1296

ABSTRACT. This paper described the fabrication of Zinc Oxide (ZnO)-Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) heterojunction thin films using RF-powered Magnetron Sputtering System. The deposition parameters were controlled to produce the films with the thicknesses in the range of 100 nm to 500 nm. During deposition, the RF power and the argon flow are fixed at 100 Watt and 10 sccm, respectively. Structural and optical properties were studied by X-Ray Diffraction Method and UV-VIS Spectrometer. The electrical properties were studied by IV SourceMeter. The grain sizes of both thin films increasing while the thickness increase. The band gap of ZnO thin films range from 3.25 eV -3.27 eV and for Cu2O thin films range from 2.00 eV – 2.15 e V. All Cu2O/ZnO thin films show ideal diode properties.

KEYWORDS: ZnO, Cu2O, thin film, heterojunction device


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