VOLUME 39, Issue 1


Husni Mubarok, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Ibnu Maryanto

Olumide Isaac Fakolujo1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2Efere Martins Obuotor3, and Victor Folorunsho Olaleye2*

Joko Sulistyo*and Sohaib Nazir

Andy R. Mojiol

Jephte Sompud1*, Emily A. Gilbert1, Chirra Snoriana Mobik1, and Paul Yambun


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Jephte Sompud1*, Emily A. Gilbert1, Chirra Snoriana
Mobik1, and Paul Yambun2

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.
E-mail: jephte@ums.edu.my

2Research and Education Division, Zoology Unit, Kinabalu Park, P.O. Box 10626, Kota Kinabalu 88806, Sabah, Malaysia


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify the species offrogs that can be found at streams, ridges and disturbed habitats of Gaya Island. Field sampling was carried out for 16 nights consecutively starting from 18thJanuary until 3rd February 2013. This research was conducted using the standard method of Visual Encounter Survey. The sampling effort for this study was 53 hours. Six sites representing three different frogs’ habitats were selected, namely streams, ridges and disturbed areas. The transect line with dimensions of 10m x 100m was used for the sampling survey. The results show that there were five species of frogs from two families that were present in Gaya Island. The five species were Inger’s dwarf frog (Ingerana baluensis), Grass frog (Fejervarya limnocharis), Mangrove frog (Fejervarya cancrivora), Green paddy frog (Hylarana erythraea) and Dark-eared tree frog (Polypedates macrotis). The highest number of frogs caught was in the stream area, consisting of 69 individuals, followed by 18 individuals at the disturbed area and two individuals at the ridges. This preliminary study indicated that there was a relationship between frog species diversity with the variety of the habitat sites. These findings present a baseline data for the frog species in Gaya Island. Future studies should be encouraged in order to have an in-depth understanding of the frogs’ natural habitats in Gaya Island.

KEYWORDS. Frogs, Gaya Island, North Borneo, Sabah, Species diversity.



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Andy R. Mojiol
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia.

Email : andy@ums.edu.my


ABSTRACT Kota Kinabalu City has several urban parks, which has become the centre of urban green space. However the function of the urban park is still not fully recognized. In addition, the enlightenment concept of urban forestry is still unclear in view of the public. This study aims to provide an assessment of the functions of each park in the city of Kota Kinabalu via public perception. Furthermore, it also aims to identify on public awareness about urban forestry concept. There are eight parks that were selected as the location of the study. The Parks comprise ofpublic and pocket parks that are maintained solely by the Kota Kinabalu City Hall. The sampling method used in this study is convenience sampling with questionnaires involving 160 respondents, of whom the target group are the park visitors. The results of the study show a total of 153 (95.6%) respondents agreed that each park has distinct and separated functions. It also shows that urban parks such as Prince Philip Public Park, Teluk Likas Park, Tun Fuad Stephen Public Park, and Ujana Rimba Public Park have recreation as the main function, meanwhile Tugu Petagas Public Park, Kampung Air Pocket Park, and Lintasan Deasoka Pocket Park have aesthetic as the main function, whilst the Signal Hill Park is found to serve as soil erosion control. In addition, a total of 123 (76.9%) of respondents understood the concept of urban forestry as planning and management of trees in urban area. As a conclusion, recreation and aesthetic are the main functions for all of the selected urban parks in the city of Kota Kinabalu city. Besides that, it is found that most of the public are aware of the existence ofurban forest concept in the city of Kota Kinabalu.

KEYWORDS. Public awareness, urban forest park, urban forest, and Kota Kinabalu, Sabah



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Joko Sulistyo*and Sohaib Nazir
Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding author; Tel.; +6088-320000; Fax : +6088320259 E-mail; jokosulistyo@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Purpose of this study was to synthesize polyphenol glycoside as transfer products that may have some biological activities, by application of transglycosylation reaction in the present of polyphenolic compound which was extracted from Moringa oleifera leaves as its acceptor and different flours as its substrate for the transglycosylation. The reaction was catalyzed by glucosyltransferase derived from fungal culture of Trichoderma viridae as a source of crude enzyme. The formation of transfer products was determined using TLC and HPLC which exhibited that polyphenol glycoside could be synthesized through the enzymatic reaction. The study had shown that substrates such as starch, maltodexrin, corn flour, wheat flour, rice flour and cassava flour were also as potential substrates to synthesis the polyphenol glycoside in the presence of polyphenolic extract as acceptor. The result of HPLC analysis presented that the isolated glycosides had retention times and concentration of 1.446 (0.0017 mg/ml), 1.431 (0.14mg/ml), and 1.474 (0.012mg/ml), respectively, as compared to the retention time of arbutin (1.474) that was applied as authentic standard. Observation using 1H NMR as well as 13C NMR showed that structures of the transfer products were identified as gallic acid- 4-O-β-glucopyranoside, ellagic acid-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, and catechin-4’-O-gluco pyranoside, respectively. IC50 value of EAGP for DPPH was 46.12µg/ml as compared to ascorbic acid (35.96µg/ml), BHT (39.73µg/ml) and α-tocopherol (42.62µg/ml) respectively, while IC50 value ofEAGP for ABTS was 64.01µg/ml as compared to ascorbic acid (30.13µg/ml), BHT (38.09µg/ml) and α-tocopherol (54.84µg/ml) respectively, whilst IC50 value of EAGP for H2O2 was found to be 51.90µg/ml while for BHT, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol were 44.18µg/ml, 47.18µg/ml, and 49.57µg/ml, respectively.


KEYWORDS. Trichoderma viridae, transglycosylation, Moringa oleifera, polyphenol




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Olumide Isaac Fakolujo1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2Efere Martins Obuotor3, and Victor Folorunsho Olaleye2*
1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: volaleye@oauife.edu.ng; +234-803-404-5185


ABSTRACT. The effect of varying concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.05 and 1.0% v/v) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil on the growth performance and biochemical changes in the serum and liver of 144 Clarias gariepinus Juveniles stocked into 12 glass aquaria at the rate of 12 fish per tank in triplicate for 90 days was assessed. The growth performance indices of the fish juvenile over the 90 days of toxic exposure revealed that the mean weight gained, specific growth rate, and total feed intake of the fish specimen decreases with increase concentration of the WSF of crude oil. However, 10% and 20% mortality were recorded in the fish exposed to 0.5% and 1.0% WSF of crude oil respectively. The activity of ALT and AST in the serum of the fish were significantly higher (p<0.05) with the increased concentration of WSF of crude oil while the ALT and AST activity of the liver of the fish juveniles irrespective of the added concentration of WSF of crude oil showed no significant differences (p>0.05). The study concluded that WSF of crude oil had adverse effects on the growth performance, blood serum and liver activities in C. gariepinus juveniles.

. Crude oil, Growth performance, Serum, Enzymes, Fish, Pollution



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Husni Mubarok, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah and Ibnu Maryanto
1Bogor Agricultural University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, W1L5, Dramaga, Bogor, Indonesia
2Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Zoology Division, Research Center for Biology, J1. Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM 46, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia Corresponding author; Dyah Perwistasari-Farajallah, Cell; +62 89638616507,

Email; navy.rock@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. This study aims to analyze karyotypes of Sulawesi’s small mammals with Giemsa banding technique. Five fruit bats species (Boneia bidens, Dobsonia viridis, Styloctenium wallacei, Thoopterus nigrescens, Thoopterus suhaniahae) and eight rat species (Bunomys andrewsi, Bunomys chrysocomus, Bunomys heinrichi, Paruromys sp., Rattus dommermani, Rattus exulans, Rattus hoffmanni, Taeromys celebensis) from Mt. Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi were analyzed. Karyotypes of three species in this study were described for the first time. There were two species of bats and one species of rats showed the best of karyotypes. B. bidens has 2n = 30, FN = 53, FNa = 50, sub metacentric and telocentric for X and Y chromosomes respectively. T. suhaniahae has 2n = 38, FN = 64, FNa = 60 and metacentric X chromosomes. R. hoffmanni has 2n = 44, FN = 61, FNa = 59 and telosentric X chromosomes.

KEYWORD. Karyotypes, 2n, FN, Metacentric, Telocentric


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