Volume 31 (Food Science Issue)

Amiza, M. A. & Masitah, M.

Mohd Adzim Khalili R., Norhayati A. H., Emynur Shafekh S., Mohamad Fazari G, Azlina M.,
Tajul Zahili, M., & Ahmad Zubaidi A. L.

1Manan, D. M. A., 2Nadiah, W. A. W., & 2Ng, Y. M.

Foong, J. H., Hon, W. M., & Ho, C. W.

1Kheng Yuen Sim, 2Fook Yee Chye, & 3Ann Anton

1Hasmadi Mamat, 1Mansoor Abdul Hamid, & 2Sandra E. Hill

Lee-Fong Siow & Kar-Hing Lee

1,2Fisal Ahmad, 1Mohd Rosni Sulaiman,
1Welzan Saimon, 1Chye Fook Yee, & 1Patricia Matanjun

1,2Marikkar, J. M. N. & 1Yanty, N. A. M.

Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd. Taha Arif, Kamaluddin Bakar, & Zainab bt Tambi

Mitra Mirsanjari1, Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda1,
Affizal Ahmad1, Mohd Shukri Othman2, Maryam Mosavat2 & Mir Mehrdad Mirsanjari3


¹Norhayati Abd Hadi, ¹Marhazlina Mohamad,
¹Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin & ²Rokiah Mohd Yusof

¹Koh, S. P., 1Jamaluddin, A., 2Alitheen, 2Mohd-Ali, N. B., 2Mohd-Yusof, N., H., 3Yeap, S. K., & 1Long, K.



ABSTRACT. In prenatal nutrition, intake of adequate and balanced diet is required for successful pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is an association between different levels of nutritional knowledge of pregnant women and healthy attitude and practice. This was a cross-sectional study among a group of normal pregnant Malay women who were selected based on systematic sampling during their routine antenatal follow up in the clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.A self-administered questionnaire of knowledge, attitude and practice of food and nutrition was used. The association of knowledge with healthy food practice and attitude was obtained with chi-square test. Findings of this study showed there was a significant association between level of nutritional knowledge and food practices on: frequency of snack (P= 0.003) and fast food consumption (P= 0.043), choice of healthy food for dinner (P = 0.005) and lunch (P= 0.016), frequency of eating chicken (P= 0.002), consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (P= 0.006), type of activity during free time (P<0.001), kind of drink (P= 0.038), attitude about significance of physical activity (P= 0.003) and most important items when buying foods (P= 0.006). On the other hand, there was no significant association between knowledge level of participants and their frequency and type of breakfast intake (P= 0.836), consumption of healthy snacks (P= 0.168), frequency of consumption of fish and sea foods, meat, egg, beans, vegetables, fruits, and milk. This study showed most pregnant women have moderate or good nutritional knowledge. But their knowledge needs to be improved in order to affect their practices more effectively.

KEYWORDS. Dietary habits, level of knowledge, pregnancy

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ABSTRACT. Street food vending is a prevailing and distinctive part of a large informal sector in both developed and developing countries. Food safety is a key public health concern, because a large number of people take their meals outside the home and are exposed to food borne illnesses. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of storage, processing production, preparation and retailing. The objective of the study is to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of food safety among the food vendors in Kuching City, Sarawak and to determine the factors affecting them. A cross sectional study was conducted among the street vendors in Kuching City. A total of 361 street food vendors were selected using non-probability sampling technique. Data were collected by face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. All completed questionnaires were validated manually and data analysis carried out by computer using SPSS version 19.0 software package. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that age and ethnicity appeared to be important factors for food safety knowledge (p<0.05), whereas food safety knowledge and training appeared to be influencing factors for attitude (p<0.05). On the other hand, food safety knowledge, attitude, training and age of the food vendors influence the food safety practice, but duration of food vending had an inverse relationship with food safety practice (0<0.05). Findings of this study may help in planning health intervention programs for food handlers for their improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice towards food-borne diseases and food safety. Furthermore, this will in turn reduce the morbidity and mortality of food-borne diseases.

KEYWORDS. Attitude, food safety, knowledge, practice, Sarawak

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ABSTRACT. Fat extracted from pork is prohibited under halal and kosher food regulations. A study was carried out on Madhuca longifolia seed fat and oil to compare their solidification and melting characteristics to formulate halal alternative lipid substitutes. Initially, a direct comparison of pork fat and Madhuca longifolia seed fat was done with respect to fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions using chromatographic techniques and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pulse NMR spectroscopy. By subjecting these two fats to fractional crystallization under controlled temperature in acetone, their solid and liquid components were isolated separately. The thermal properties of the solid and liquid components from pork fat were also compared to those of lipid derivatives from Madhuca longifolia seed fat using DSC and NMR techniques. As the analytical data obtained from DSC and pulse NMR techniques showed that the thermal properties of these two fats and their components were compatible, Madhuca longifolia seed fat could be a useful raw material for formulation as halal alternative fats.

KEYWORDS. Animal fats, halal alternatives, lard, Madhuca longifolia, seed fats

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ABSTRACT. In this study proximate compositions and total phenolic contents in extracts of 15 seaweeds from Semporna, Sabah, were determined. In general, results of proximate analysis for all seaweeds showed that moisture content (75.95-96.03%) was the most abundant in seaweed, followed by carbohydrate (26.86 – 74.10% dry weight basis), crude fiber (4.03 – 34.71% dry weight), and ash (6.05 – 45.04% dry weight), crude protein (5.22 – 17.28% dry weight), and crude fat content (0.15 – 0.84% dry weight). The total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method based on the standard calibration curve of phloroglucinol measured at 740 nm using UV-Visible Spectrometer (Perkin Elmer). Overall, the total phenolic contents for all seaweeds of methanolic extract were between 9.40 – 51.87 mg/g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE) of dried sample. The results of the present study showed significant differences (p<0.05) in proximate compositions and total phenolic contents among several species of red, green and brown seaweeds. The findings on total phenolic contents and proximate compositions of the seaweeds in this study can be further used as a basis for more advance research on seaweed antioxidant capability and nutritional information guideline, respectively.

KEYWORDS. Edible seaweed, proximate compositions, total phenolic contents

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ABSTRACT. The effect of osmotic pretreatment using 50 %(w/v) sucrose, trehaloseormaltitol syrups on the physicochemical properties of frozen pineapple pieces (Josapine variety) of ~6.7 cm in external diameter (without core) and ~0.9 cm in thickness was investigated. Maltitol-treated pineapple pieces had a higher water loss than those treated with sucrose and trehalose (p ≤ 0.05). All three syrups resulted in similar solid gain. Prior to freezing, pineapple pieces were subjected to osmotic pretreatment for 1 hour. This was followed by cooling the pineapple pieces at either slow (0.25ºC/min) or fast (6.13°C/min) cooling rates to -20°C with an untreated sample used as a control. Physicochemical properties including drip loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and colour of samples stored at -20°C for 0, 3, 10, 14, 17 and 24 days were determined. Untreated pineapple pieces exhibited a smaller change in firmness at fast cooling rate compared to slow cooling rate. At fast cooling rate, a higher drip loss was observed for thawed pineapple pieces compared to slow cooling rate. In the presence of maltitol and trehalose, a small change in firmness and higher drip loss was found at slow cooling compared to fast cooling. In the presence of sucrose, there was no significant change in drip loss at both slow and fast cooling rates. Fast cooling in the presence of sucrose, maltitol or trehalose had no effect on firmness of osmo-dehydrofrozen pineapple pieces. Frozen storage of 24 days did not affect the physiochemical properties of osmo-dehydrofrozen pineapples.

KEYWORDS. Ananascomosus, cooling rate, maltitol, sucrose, trehalose

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ABSTRACT. Total fat contents, fatty acid composition and percentages of saturated (SFA), mono-unsaturated (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid were analyzed in ten commercial semi sweet (rich tea type) biscuits using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total fat content determined was slightly different with the fat content declared by the manufacturer. Major fatty acids present were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Stearic and myristic fatty acids were also detected but with lower proportion (below 1.5 %). The results obtained show a great variance in the percentages of fatty acids (g/100 g total fatty acids).   From the different brands of semi-sweet biscuit, four of the samples contained a high proportion of saturated fatty acids and six samples contained a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid.


KEYWORDS. Rich tea biscuit, fatty acid composition, fat extraction, GC/MS, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid.

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ABSTRACT. This study assessed the potential of probiotic and antimicrobial activity of strains isolated from an indigenous fish sauce in Malaysia. A total of 150 isolates were evaluated for their resistance toward low pH and bile salts as well as the production of inhibitory substances against four selected foodborne pathogens namely Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lactobacillus plantarum (LP1, LP2), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC3), Candida glabrata (CG2), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL2) and Staphylococcus arlettae (SA) strains showed resistance to low pH and bile salt at various concentrations. The LP1(86.3%), LP2 (86.2%), LL2 (84.4%) and CG2 (79.7%) strains exhibited higher survival rates than SA (66.7%) strain at extremely low pH concentration (pH 1.5) compared to other tested strains; while most of the strains tolerate bile salt at low concentrations (0.3%) which mimic the human small intestine environment. The growth rate of the tested strains decreased in proportion to the increase of bile salt concentrations. All the strains elicited different levels of antimicrobial activities against selected pathogens. Only the LP1, SC3 and SA strains showed greater inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The result suggested that LP1, LP2, SC3, CG2, LL2 and SA were technologically interesting and could be developed as starter cultures for the manufacturing of novel functional fermented foods.


KEYWORDS. Fish sauce, probiotic, bile salt tolerance, antimicrobial activity, starter cultures

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Foong, J. H., Hon, W. M., & Ho, C. W.

Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University,
No. 1, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI Heights, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Bioactive compounds have been intensively studied due to their beneficial effects on high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This study focused on the bioactive compounds (fatty acids, phytosterols, betacyanins and acetic acid) and other aspects (physical, microbiological, chemical and nutritional properties) of fermented liquid dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) without pasteurization sample A (SA) and with pasteurization sample B (SB). Overall, SB exhibited significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of phytosterols, betacyanins, acetic acids, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total flavanol assay (TFA) as compared to SA, except fatty acids; this suggested that heat treatment (75oC for 15 s) may have exerted a favourable effect on the concentration of these bioactive compounds. Also, SB showed greater (p<0.05) radical scavenging capacity in 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay than SA. No microorganisms were detected in SA or SB which was possibly due to restricting internal factor such as low pH (3.94-4.00), high ethanol concentration (7.31-8.92%) and the presence of organic acids. In conclusion, the overall results suggested both SA and SB were microbiologically safe for consumption however heat pasteurization may exert a beneficial effect on concentrations of bioactive compounds.

KEYWORDS. Bioactive compounds, dragon fruit, cholesterol, pasteurization, fermentation


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*1Manan, D. M. A., 2Nadiah, W. A. W., & 2Ng, Y. M.

1Universiti Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology,
Taboh Naning, Kawasan Perindustrian Bandar Vendor, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia.
2Food Technology Division,
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACTS. Peanuts were soaked for 24 hours in water at 30°C in preparation for sauce production. Soaking was conducted under conditions that cause normal microbial fermentation and in the presence of Pediococcus halophilus. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in carbohydrate, organic acid and amino acid concentrations during short period soaking under normal fermentation and with inoculated lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus halophilus. Changes in the concentration of carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids of the soaked peanuts were determined. The principal sugar present in the peanut was sucrose, 46.33 mg g-1 peanut (DM). Sucrose concentration dropped during soaking although at a slower rate in the inoculated peanut. Acetic, lactic, citric and oxalic acids were detected. Acetic acid was the main organic acid in the uninoculated peanut whereas acetic and lactic acids were prominent in the inoculated peanut. Higher concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine were found in the inoculated beans after 24 hours soaking although soaking for18 hours was found to yield an optimum amino acid concentration. The presence of organic acids and principle amino acids produced during controlled fermentation contributed to the flavour enhancing effect.

KEYWORDS. Peanut sauce, lactic acid bacteria, amino acid production, organic acid production


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*Mohd Adzim Khalili R., Norhayati A. H., Emynur Shafekh S., Mohamad Fazari G, Azlina M.,
Tajul Zahili, M., & Ahmad Zubaidi A. L.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA),
Kampus Kota, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Recently more attention has been directed toward plant extracts and biologically active compounds isolated from popular plant species. Seven types of selected herbs available in Terengganu known as Nilam (Pogostemon cablin), Kuda Belang (Aphelandra squarrosa), Buah Keras (Adhatoda vasica), Sesudu (Euphorbia nerrifola), Lelipan (Pedilanthus tithymaloides), Gelenggang (Casia alata) and Ekor Kucing (Uraria picta) was determined based on the widely used by local Terengganu people as traditional herbal remedies. Methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from these seven herbs were screened for their potential antibacterial activity against food microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia). The methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fraction extracts from Pogostemon cablin, Aphelandra squarrosa, Adhatoda vasica, Euphorbia neriifola, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Casia alata and Uraria picta were exhibited significant antibacterial activity with a range of minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 to 6.25 µg/mL.

KEYWORDS. Herbs plant, antibacterial activity, fractionate extraction, food microorganisms


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*Amiza, M. A. & Masitah, M.

Department of Food Science,
Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science,
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. The objective of this study is to establish the optimum hydrolysis conditions for blood cockle (Anadara granosa) using Alcalase® employing response surface methodology (RSM). A three-level face-centered central composite design (CCD) was adapted in the study. The effects of temperature (45-65oC), pH (7.5-9.5), ratio of enzyme to substrate level (1-2%) and hydrolysis time (60-180 minutes) were studied in order to obtain the optimum degree of hydrolysis. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of blood cockle were found to be at 65oC, pH of 9.5, enzyme concentration at 2% and hydrolysis time of 180 minutes. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cockles gave a quadratic fit with the experimental data. Under these optimum conditions, the predicted value for degree of hydrolysis was 34.05%, while the actual experimental data was 37.27%. The lyophilized blood cockle hydrolysate was composed of 8.59% water, 74% protein, 5.80% fat, 10.22% ash and 1.39% carbohydrate.

KEYWORDS. Alcalase®, blood cockle, degree of hydrolysis, optimization


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1*Koh, S. P., 1Jamaluddin, A., 2Alitheen, 2Mohd-Ali, N. B.,
2Mohd-Yusof, N., H., 3Yeap, S. K., & 1Long, K.

1Biotechnology Research Centre,
Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute (MARDI)
2Department of Cell & Molecular Biology,
Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
3Institute of Bioscience,
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

ABSTRACT. In this study, soybean was subjected to both fermentation and germination process that was exposed either in an aerobic or anaerobic condition or combination of both. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids content and antioxidants properties of both fermented and germinated soybean were analyzed. In all cases, the fermented soybean inoculated with Rhizopus 5351 strain were noted to have high content of GABA, essential amino acids and better antioxidant activities than germinated soybean. It was observed that fermented soybean subjected to both combination of aerobic and anaerobic incubation treatment (FSB3) had the highest content of GABA with the abundant of beneficial free and essential amino acids content, which was 0.328, 3.212 and 1.104 g/100g dry weight, respectively. In addition, sample FSB3 also showed the highest content of total phenolic compound (22.56 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 value of 20 mg extract/mL among other soybean treatment. Within germination process, anaerobic germinated soybean at 72 h appeared to have better yield of GABA and amino acids content with higher antioxidant activities than other germinated soybean under aerobic condition. This sample was observed to contain higher amount of total phenolic compound and ferric reducing antioxidant power with lower value of IC50. This study showed that the fermented soybean inoculated with Rhizopus 5351 strain is able to produce better nutritive value when compared to germinated soybean either in aerobic or anaerobic condition.

KEYWORDS. Antioxidant; Fermentation; g-amino butyric acid (GABA); Germination; Soybean


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¹*Norhayati Abd Hadi, ¹Marhazlina Mohamad,
¹Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin & ²Rokiah Mohd Yusof

¹Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kampus Kota,
Jalan Sultan Mahmud, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
²Department of Nutrition and Dietetics,
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to determine the effects of red pitaya fruit consumption on blood glucose level, lipid profile, body weight and total body fat in type 2 diabetic subjects. A total of 28 subjects were randomly divided into four groups; Group 1 were given 400g of red pitaya per day, Group 2 were given 600 g of red pitaya per day, Group 3 negative control; were diabetic patients and given a normal diet and Group 4 positive control; were healthy subjects and given a normal diet. Subjects were assigned to a seven week study which consisted of three phases: phase 1: one week, phase 2: 4 weeks of treatment and phase 3: 2 weeks of wash-out. After four weeks of treatment, Group 1 showed a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol level and a significant decrease in blood glucose, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride level. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol level on the seventh week of the study. Even though there was no significant difference in Group 2, there was still an increasing trend in HDL-cholesterol level and decreasing trend in blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerideand LDL-cholesterol levels, with a higher percent of changes than Group 1. No significant differences were seen in body weight and total body fat in any groups.

Blood glucose, red pitaya fruit, type 2 diabetes mellitus, lipid profiles.


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