Volume 38, Issue 2


A Short Review of Isoindigo Acceptor for Conjugated Polymeric Photovoltaics
Shu Er Tan, Wahidah Zabidi and Mohd Sani Sarjadi*

Characterization of Different Metal Oxide Promoted Alumina Catalyst
- S. M . Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, Duduku Krishnaiah, F .A . Lahin, and C. Ramlan

Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subrings
Mikhled, Okleh Alsarahead, Abd Ghafur, and Ahmad

On the General Solution of 2th Order Linear Differential Equation
J. López-Bonilla,G. Posadas-Durán, and O. Salas-Torres.

On the Roots of the Legendre Laguerre, and Hermite Polynomials
S. Álvarez-Ballesteros, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez

Relationship between Water Quality & Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Abundance in Tambunan District, Sabah.
Nur Ashiqin Abdul Hamid, Maria Lourdes T. Lardizabal, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Estherpeni Stephen and Maznah Mahali

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Shu Er Tan, Wahidah Zabidi and Mohd Sani Sarjadi*
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author: msani@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This paper focussed on the recent development of conjugated polymers that contains isoindigo as acceptor moiety in the application of copolymeric solar cell. In the past decade, various modifications have been done either on the isoindigo acceptor itself or incorporated the isoindigo with different donor moieties. Recently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of this isoindigo-based polymeric photovoltaics have achieved up to ~7%. Hence, it is a promising acceptor for the photovoltaics and is expected to break through the recent PCE achievement in the future. This review briefly summarized the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers that have been investigated by the past researches.

KEYWORD. Isoindigo; Conjugated copolymers; Polymeric solar cells; Small molecules.



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Characterization of Different Metal Oxide Promoted Alumina Catalyst

S.M. Anisuzzamana,b,*, Awang Bonob, Duduku Krishnaiahb, F. A. LahinbC. Ramlanb
aEnergy Research Unit (ERU),
bChemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Correspondence author. Tel: +6088-320000 ext. 3222, Fax: +6088-320348, E-mail address: anis_zaman@ums.edu.my; dr.anis.ums@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. In this study, different metal oxide alumina promoted catalysts were prepared and characterized. All the catalysts (CaO/Al2O3, CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3MnO/Al2O3, NiO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3) were prepared using the incipient wetness impregnation method followed by drying and calcination. The characterization of all six samples of catalysts was done to determine the surface morphology, porosity, functional group, thermal stability, metal content and particle size distribution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of samples showed that there were pores on the surface of the alumina. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that copper oxide alumina promoted (CuO/Al2O3) had the high porosity which is 36.77 m2/g followed by zinc oxide (ZnO/Al2O3), calcium oxide (CaO/Al2O3) nickel oxide (NiO/Al2O3) manganese oxide (MnO/Al2O3) and ferric oxide alumina promoted (FeO/Al2O3) catalysts. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the presence of by-product existed in all catalysts. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis showed the presence of Cu, Fe and Zn in the CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3, while Ca was absent in CaO/Al2O3Besides, through thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), all the catalysts showed a slight decrease in weight which can be considered as a stable catalyst. The particle size distribution analysis using the Zetasizer showed the particle size mean based on the intensity of CaO/Al2O3, CuO/Al2O3, FeO/Al2O3MnO/Al2O3, NiO/Al2O3 and ZnO/Al2O3 were 2305 nm, 5560 nm, 5560 nm, 1281 nm, 1281 nm and 3580 nm, respectively.

KEYWORDS. Biofuel, metal oxide promoted alumina catalyst, wet incipient impregnation method



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Complex Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subrings

Mikhled1* Okleh Alsarahead, Abd Ghafur1 Ahmad
1School of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author’s email: mekhledsarheed@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we defined the complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring and introduced some new concepts like Intuitionistic fuzzy sets and homogeneous complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Then, we investigated some of characteristics of complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring. The relationship between complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring and intuitionistic fuzzy subring is also investigated. It is found that every complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring yields two intuitionistic fuzzy subring. Finaly, we defined the image and inverse image of complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring under ring homomorphism, and thus studied their elementary properties.

KEYWORDS. Intuitionistic fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy subring, homogeneous complex intuitionistic fuzzy set, complex intuitionistic fuzzy subring.



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On the General Solution of 2th Order Linear Differential Equation

J. López-Bonilla, G. Posadas-Durán, O. Salas-Torres
ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 4, 1er. Piso, Col. Lindavista CP 07738, CDMX, México.
Email: lopezb@ipn.mx

ABSTRACT. We employ a method of factorization to obtain the general solution of the second order linear differential equation, which is an alternative procedure to the usual Variation of Parameters method of Lagrange. We consider that our approach can be adapted to linear differential equations of the third and fourth order.

KEYWORDS. Linear differential equation of second order, Variation of parameters, Factorization method.


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  • A. Hernández-Galeana, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez, On the second order linear differential equation, Pure and Appl. Maths. Lett. 2 (2014) 31-34.
  • J. López-Bonilla, A. Zaldívar-Sandoval, J. Yaljá Montiel, 2th order linear differential operator in its exact form, J. Vect. Rel. 5, No. 1 (2010) 139-141.
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On the Roots of the Legendre Laguerre, and Hermite Polynomials

 S. Álvarez-Ballesteros, J. López-Bonilla, R. López-Vázquez,
ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 5, 1er. Piso, Col. Lindavista CP 07738, CDMX, México

ABSTRACT. For several orthogonal polynomials, Cohen proved that their roots are the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. In this paper, we give examples of this Cohen’s result for the Legendre, Laguerre, and Hermite polynomials, which are useful in applications to quantum mechanics and numerical analysis.

KEYWORDS: Laguerre and Hermite polynomials, Leverrier-Takeno’s technique, Legendre polynomials.



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Relationship between Water Quality & Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) Abundance in Tambunan District, Sabah

Nur Ashiqin Abdul Hamid1*, Maria Lourdes T. Lardizabal1, Hiroyuki Takaoka2Estherpeni Stephen1 & Maznah Mahali
1Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University Malaysia Sabah, Jln. UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur
Corresponding author: Nur Ashiqin Abudul Hamid Email: ashiqinhamid@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. A study to investigate the relationship between black flies (Simuliidae) pupa abundance and physio-chemical parameters such as velocity, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solid was conducted at Tambunan district, Sabah. A total of six rivers were selected as sampling stations. Five sampling points located at a distance of 5-10 meters were established in each sampling station. Sampling was conducted every fortnight for a duration of six months from October 2015 until March 2017. Samples of black flies larvae and pupae were manually collected from substrates consisting of grasses, plant roots and plastics which were found stuck in between the rocks with running water area. Water quality parameters that were measured during every sampling, include water temperature, velocity, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolve solids (TDS). Results from this study showed that The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed two PC’s which had eigenvalues >1.0 and together accounted for 78% total variability of the physio-chemical parameters. PC-1 which accounted 56% of variability defined a normal temperature (23-250C), high water velocity, high dissolved oxygen, low conductivity and low total dissolved solid. While PC-2 explained 22% of the variability was related to water pH. Pearson’s correlation result shows that only velocity had a significant relationship with the abundance of black flies (r=0.512, p<0.01), while other parameters did not show any significant relationship with its abundance. In conclusion, results from this study revealed that only water velocity had a significant relationship with the abundance of black flies.

KEYWORDS: Black flies, physio-chemical parameters, Tambunan.



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