Volume 43 (Issue 2), September 2022

– Nor Azira Mohd Radzi1, Latisha Asmaak Shafie2, Nor Alifah Rosaidi3, Razlina Razali4, Lew Ya Ling5 and Ku Azlina Ku Akil6

– Hardianshah Saleh1, Siam Jia Quan2, Muhammad Jaya Padriyamzah Bin Abdul Hamid3

Recovery of used lubricating oil by glacial acetic acid with two different activated carbons
– S. M. Anisuzzaman1,2* and Mohammad Hafiz Jumaidi2

Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) onto activated carbon derived from coffee waste
– S.M Anisuzzaman1, Collin G. Joseph2,*, Mintshe Tan2

– Ismail Abd Rahim1, Hardianshah Saleh2, Baba Musta2, Immas Janggok2 & Amy Natasha Arjali2




Nor Azira Mohd Radzi1, Latisha Asmaak Shafie2, Nor Alifah Rosaidi3, Razlina Razali4, Lew Ya Ling5 and Ku Azlina Ku Akil6

1, 2,3,4,5 Academy of Language Studies, 

6 Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, 

Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, 

Kampus Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

ABSTRACT.  Opinion leaders or social influencers possess the conviction of their followers in making personal and professional decisions. Their posts or sharing on social media may strongly influence their followers’ decision to practise some environmental actions in their daily lives. They are often labelled as the current thought leaders among the Millennials. Considering the critical environmental issues faced, many social influencers play important roles to show their willingness to change human destructive behaviours and conserve the environment for the future. Realising their influence on their followers, these environmental influencers relentlessly encourage their followers to support their missions. Thus, the study attempted to profile successful environmental leaders among social influencers from the views of their followers. The study was a qualitative multiple case study on five informants. The informants volunteered to participate and were from 100 university students. They were interviewed in a written semi-structured interview and researchers could reach them if clarification was needed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Peer debriefing was used to increase trustworthiness. The findings revealed that effective environmental leaders possessed these criteria: a) credibility; b) generosity; c) responsible creators; d) influential figures; e) trust builders. The informants believed that these social influencers are as real as offline leaders even though they only knew these social influencers in online contexts. The ability of environmental social influencers to reach and convince multiple audiences to participate and support various environmental initiatives via social media platforms made them powerful thought leaders.

 KEYWORDS. social influencers, followers, environmental awareness, pro-environmental behaviours



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Hardianshah Saleh1, Siam Jia Quan2, Muhammad Jaya Padriyamzah Bin Abdul Hamid3 


1Faculty Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

2Faculty of Science and Computer Informatic, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS.

3Wullesdorf Resources Sdn Bhd.

ABSTRACT. Seawater intrusion is known to be a major problem that influences the quality of groundwater within coastal regions globally. The groundwater table within the coastal area is usually close to the ground surface due to low topography or human development activities such as land reclamation and man-made drainage systems that keep the water table at constant low level. Electrical resistivity method is one of the geophysical methods that has been extensively used to investigate seawater intrusion due to the high electrical conductivity contrast produced by saline water. Papar, Sabah is located at the west coastal region of Sabah and is generally formed by Crocker formation and Quaternary alluvium. The sedimentary rock of Crocker Formation mainly consists of thick sandstone unit, interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale unit and shale unit. A total of Five 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) methods were carried to image and model the subsurface within the research area to investigate the possibility of seawater intrusion. The ERI results are also supported by four groundwater samples and detailed lithologies from the borehole. Interpretation of the results divided the research area into three main zones of seawater intrusion potentials. Zone 1 is considered the highest potential of seawater intrusion, Zone 2 interpreted as potential extended zone or mixing zones between seawater and fresh water and finally Zone 3 did not indicate any low resistivity or potential of seawater intrusion. The seawater intrusion map produced from this research initiated and divided the potential zones based on the occurrence of seawater in the subsurface.

KEYWORDS. Geophysics, seawater intrusion, groundwater.



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S.M. Anisuzzaman1,2* and Mohammad Hafiz Jumaidi2

1Energy Research Unit (ERU),

2Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: anis_zaman@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT: Recovery of used lubricating oil (ULO) generally comprises cleaning, drying, and adsorption in order to eliminate water, sludge, and impurities. As the ULO is one of the hazardous wastes generated in various industrial and automotive industries, it should not be used or disposed of in ways that are harmful to the environment. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of activated carbons (ACs) which are coconut AC (CAC) and rice husk AC (RHAC) in recovering the ULO. Glacial acetic acid was used in the acid treatment as it does not react with the base oils, and the ACs were substituted with the clay used in the clay treatment. The recovered oil was analysed through analytical characterizations, which are Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). FTIR analysis revealed that the properties of the untreated ULO samples improved by removing the carbonyl compounds. In terms of metal removal, RHAC had shown better performance than CAC as it gave low metal contents in AAS. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the optimum process parameters that would maximise the efficiency of the process. There are two factors that were manipulated, which are the weight of adsorbent (A) and speed of mixing (B). For CAC, the optimum value of factors A was 4.00 g while the B was set to 524.89 rpm.  Meanwhile, for RHAC, the optimum value of factors A was 2.29 g while the B was set to 4000 rpm. CAC has higher desirability with 0.83 compared to RHAC with 0.69.  

KEYWORDS: Acid clay treatment; activated carbon; optimization; response surface methodology; used lubricating oil


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S M Anisuzzaman1, Collin G. Joseph2,*, Mintshe Tan

1Chemical Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering,

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

2Industrial Chemistry Programme, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,

 Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

*Corresponding author: collin@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. In this study, activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from coffee waste via a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method after impregnation by zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The effect of impregnation ratio (IR) on the physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was studied. Characterizations of the generated ACs were carried out to determine the percentage of yield, moisture and ash contents, pH, surface chemistry studies and morphological attributes. The results showed that the yield of AC decreased from 41.16% to 37.12% with the increase in IR. As for moisture and ash contents, the percentage values ranged from 4.18% to 6.16% and 9.73% to 10.34% respectively. Meanwhile, the AC samples were slightly acidic with pH values varying between 6.06 and 6.56. The adsorption capacity increased from 16.8 mg/g for AC1 to 21.72 mg/g for AC4. The AC produced with an IR of 4:1 (AC4) had the highest adsorption capacity of 2,4-DCP, which was 21.72 mg/g. The maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area of the best produced AC4 was found to be 951.10 m2/g, which is by far the highest achieved in comparison with other coffee waste-derived ACs reported in the literature. N2 adsorption-desorption graph showed a Type I isotherm, indicating that the AC4 was a microporous solid with chemisorption properties. Langmuir isotherm model was found to be a better fit for the adsorption data when compared to the Freundlich isotherm model.   Pseudo-second order kinetic model was best described for the kinetic of 2,4-DCP adsorption. This proved that 2,4-DCP adsorption by AC4 was a chemisorption process. 

KEYWORDS: Activated carbon, two-stage activation, 2,4-dichlorophenol, coffee waste, adsorption 


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Ismail Abd Rahim1, Hardianshah Saleh2, Baba Musta2, Immas Janggok2 & 

Amy Natasha Arjali2

1Natural Disasters Research Unit, School of Sciences & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

2Geology Program, Faculty of Sciences & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Corresponding Author: Ismail Abd Rahim1. E-mail: arismail@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT: The Zen Garden Resort and its surrounding area are part of the “Kundasang Landslide Complex” and were experiencing reactivation of old landslides on 10 April 2011. Consequently, more than 80 room units of the resort, ten buildings, homes, and local roads were destroyed, uplifted, and damaged as well as disrupted day traffic. About 500m in length and 200m in width of the slope area were slides for 25m. The vertical fall movement in the head section of the landslide is 25m. There is no direct relationship between the 2015 Ranau earthquake and with earlier rotational clay slide of the 2011 Zen Garden Resort landslide. The causing and triggering factor for landslides are generally varied and are always characterized as region-specific and site-specific. Thus, this study was conducted to unravel the triggering and causal factors for the rotational clay slide of the 2011 Zen Garden Resort landslide. The methodology consists of desk study, remote sensing study, geological mapping, geodynamic mapping, laboratory, and data analysis. This study found that the landslides were triggered by prolonged moderate to occasional heavy rainfall. The causal factors are divided into natural factors (tectonic uplift, weak materials, weathered materials, sheared or jointed materials, adversely oriented mass discontinuity or structural discontinuity, and contrast in permeability) while the artificial factor consists of excavation of the slope or its toe, cut and fill, subterranean erosion/ piping, irrigation or water leakage from utilities and deforestation or vegetation removal.

Keywords Zen Garden Resort, landslides, Kundasang landslide complex, colluvium, geodynamic, trigger and causal factors


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