Volume 36, Issue 1 (Full Volume)


Assesment of Toxicity Level in Selected Heavy Metal in Volcanic Soils from Tawau, Sabah
– Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta (p.1)

Geomechanical Classification Scheme for Heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
– Ismail Abd Rahim (p.12)

Morphologies Changes during Pre- and Post- Southwest Season in Mantanani Besar Island, Kota Belud, Sabah
– Russsel Felix Koiting, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap (p. 21)

The Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae) From Bawakareng Mountain, South Sulawesi
– Ellena Yusti, Ibnu Maryanto & Bambang Suryobroto (p.33)

Classification and Quantification of Marine Debris at Teluk Likas, Sabah
– Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan, Rudy Kilip, Dazvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus (p.44)

Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

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Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin*, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta

Faculty of Science & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*E-mail address: mohamedaliyusof@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. Heavy metals are one of the serious pollutants in environment because its toxicity. Severe concentration of heavy metals can harm the plants, animals and even human. During the pedogenesis process, heavy metals from the parent rock are mobilized in soils and redistribute in to the environment. The objective of this paper is to study the concentration and toxicity level of selected heavy metals in volcanic soils around Tawau, Sabah. In this study 10 soil samples were collected from different sampling stations. The selection of soil
samples were based on the different type of volcanic rocks in the study area. The determination of concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were carried out using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The result shows, the highest concentration is chromium with the average of 141 ppm followed by zinc with 112 ppm. The concentration of copper is 49 ppm, nickel 15 ppm, lead 8 ppm and arsenic 7 ppm. The soil samples is identified as polluted due to the elevated concentration of certain heavy metals when compared with the Sediment Quality Guidelines of US EPA. Chromium is regarded as heavily polluted agent while zinc, copper and arsenic indicated that the area is moderately polluted. Nickel and lead average concentration show no indication of pollution in the area. It is concluded that the combined source of heavy metals in the study area would be the parent materials of the soils and other anthropogenic effluent. From the study also, it is found out that pH value, organic matter and clay percentage has influenced the heavy metal concentration in volcanic soil in the study area.

KEYWORDS.  Heavy Metals, Tawau, Volcanic Soils, XRF.



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Ismail Abd Rahim
Natural Disasters Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti
Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Phone: 088 320000 (5734/5999)
Fax: 088 435324

. Geomechanical classification scheme for heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has been proposed in 2009 and known as Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR). M-SMR was used to characterize and to propose preliminary rock cut slope design such as slope stabilization and protection measures and recommendation levels for design model review and slope remapping by suitable engineering geologist or geotechnical
engineers. The ‘Lithological unit thickness’ approach, RQD method, weighted average of discontinuity set spacing, weighted average, statistical mode and new approach of adjustment factor (NAAF) methods were used to evaluate the parameters in M-SMR. The classes in MSMR scheme consists of class I (very good) to class VI (extremely bad). Local trimming, slope re-profiling, weep hole, horizontal drainage, concrete dentition or buttress, rock bolting or dowel, wire mesh or rope nets, reinforce shotcrete and benching are proposed slope stabilization and protection measures. Normal to detailed Design Model Review (DMR) and slope remapping are recommended to highly recommended by engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers to expert engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers for class I to class VI, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Geomechanical classification, Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR), Crocker Formation, Kota Kinabalu, slope design.


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  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Tahir & Baba Musta. 2009a. Modified Slope Mass Rating (MSMR) system: A classification scheme of interbedded Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Proceeding of the 8th Seminar on Science and Technology 2009 (S&T2009), Tuaran, Sabah.
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    Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
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  • Sanudin Tahir & Baba Musta. 2007. Pengenalan Kepada Stratigrafi. Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
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Russel Felix Koiting*, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap

Borneo Marine Research Institute,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Contact person: Emai: rfk_moon_2509@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. Mantanani Besar Island is one of the community and tourism islands in the west coast of Sabah. It is inhabited by local Ubian people which stated that the island receiving major problem of erosion around the island. Ocean motion (waves and currents) and winds causes the erosion and together with seasonal monsoons change the intensity and formation of waves, winds and the periodic storms. These combinations intensified the geomorphic processes of erosion and accretion along the shoreline. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to determine the beach morphologies (beach profile, volume and angle) and sediment parameters during pre- and post- southwest monsoon (SWM). This study was conducted on May and November 2013 in order to see the beach changes done before and after the peak 2013 SWM (May to September). Beach profiles were measured at 5 stations around the island. Further measurements on beach volume and angle were calculated based on the beach profile readings. Sediment samples were collected at mid tide and analyzed the sediment parameters (mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis). Results show most of the beach profile increase in post-SWM than in pre-SWM. Significant changes of the beach elevation were found at northern part of the island (st 4 and st 5). Beach volume increases in most of the station with a range from 2.71 to 9.19 while only st 3 experienced sediment loss with -0.75 Beach angle are also increase at most of the station (1 o) but significantly increase at st 5 (4.62o). Based on the sediment size analysis, mean values are decreasing shows the increase of energy condition. Most of the sediment are moderately sorted and positively skewness. The kurtosis value are vary indicates the presence of other source of sorting. The information gathered on this study is useful for the development along the beach and future management plan of the island.

KEYWORDS: beach profile and angle, sediment characteristics, shoreline changes, Mantanani Besar Island


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Ellena Yusti¹*, Ibnu Maryanto², Bambang Suryobroto³
¹Master Program in Animal Bioscience, Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University,
Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
²Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of
Sciences (LIPI), Jl.Raya Cibinong KM 47, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia
³Department of Animal Bioscience, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science Bogor
Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
Corresponding author: yuellena@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. A study of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) was conducted in the mountain region of Bawakaraeng, Gowa and Sinjai, South Sulawesi from September to December 2013. This study aims to determine the fruit bats composition and diversity, habitat preferences and relation between bats individual captured with the moon phases. Ten species (265 individuals) of fruit bats were captured using standardized mist netting in five habitat types and elevations. Shannon-Wiener indices were highest in mixed garden (1453 m asl) and lowest in pine forest (1545 m asl), with the highest evenness in mixed garden and pine forest. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the habitat preferences were found in the mixed garden (1453 m asl) and primary forest with a river stream (2000 m asl), while at moon phases, number of individual bats captured in the dark moon phase was higher than full moon phases. This study shows that the abundance of fruit bats tightly associated with food availibility.

KEYWORDS. Fruit bats, distribution, habitat preferences, moon phases\


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Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan*, Rudy Kilip, Dezvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Email: f_anis@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT.Marine debris is a well-known issue faced by the public today and the problem is becoming serious day by day. In this study, quantification and classification of marine debris for plastic, fabric, paper, metal, glass and rubber was conducted to evaluate the marine littering of contamination level at Likas Bay. This study also aims to identify the sources of the marine debris whether it was from the land or was brought in from the sea. By selecting 10m x 10m transects randomly, the marine litters that were collected along the bay were rinsed, dried, weighted and classified according to categories. Total of 3396 items/100m2 of marine debris with the weight of 14499.36g/100m2 were collected throughout the study. From the result, it shows that plastic dominated the overall numbers and weight percentage of marine debris with 94.38% in numbers and 65.29% in weight. The study also indicates that the occurrence of marine debris at Likas Bay was not mainly caused from recreational activities at the area, but was brought in from the sea. This may due to the physical condition and the bay position which has the tendency to trap the marine debris from the sea. Therefore, further investigation should be undergoing to overcome and reduce the impact to the marine debris.

KEYWORDS: Marine debris, Littering, Transects, Bay


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