Jahimin Asik1, Fauziah Abdul Aziz2 and Razali Idris3
1School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
2Universiti Pertahanan Malaysia
3MARA University of Technology Perlis, Malaysia, 02600 Arau, Perlis

ABSTRACT. Cellulosic materials derived from three different types of local wood samples (sawmill woods sawdust, Acacia mangium and belian (Euxideroxilon zwagery) were extracted at atmospheric pressure using organosolv method. In an initial stage, the wood samples were delignified using peroxyacetic acid pulping to remove lignin. Then the pulp was bleached in 0.01 M solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with addition of 4% hydrogen peroxide of absolute dry pulp (ODP). Conversion to alpha-cellulose or mercerized cellulose was achieved by soaking bleached cellulosic materials in 17.5% solution of NaOH for 15 minutes at 25oC. The mercerized cellulose was thoroughly washed with large amount of distilled water until pH of the filtrate reached to natural, then vacuum dried at 60oC. From Scanning electron microscope (SEM) all mercerized woods cellulose were differ in microfibril size with high irregularity observed in sawmill sawdust. Formation of cellulose II was confirmed with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR) analysis. Preparation of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane was obtained by dissolving dry mercerized cellulose in molten 1 butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) in the presence of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) to produce a transparent solid gel film. All SPE membranes exhibit conductivity in the range of 3.6 x 10-6 to 5.7 x 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature. It was also observed that the conductivity of the SPE is affected by the size of cellulose microfibril and type of extraction. It was then further characterized with SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA.

KEYWORDS: Wood, Organosolv, Cellulose, mercerized, SPE, conductivity


  • ANON.; 1983c. TAPPI Testing Procedures (TAPPI T203 om-83). USA.
  • De Souza, I.J.; Bouchard, J.; Methot, M.; Berry, R.; Argyropoulos, D.S.; 2002. J Pulp Paper Sci 28(5):167–70.
  • Esat Gϋmϋskaya E.; Usta M.; and Kirci H.; 2003. Polymer Degradation and Stability 81: 559–564
  • Gemci, R.; 2010. Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5(6), pp. 560-571
  • Goring, D. A. I.; Timell, T. E.; 1962. Tappi 45:454-460
  • Howlett, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Hollenkamp, A.F.; 2004. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 7:A97–A101
  • Kadokawa, J.;* Murakami, M.; and Kaneko, Y., 2008. Carbohydrate Research 343 769–772
  • Kim, Y.J .; Matsuzawa, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Park, K.C.; Kim. C.; Endo. M.; Yoshida. H.; Masuda, G.; Sato, T.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; 2005 J Electrochem Soc 152:A710–A715.
  • Klemm, D.; Philip, B.; Heinze, T.; Heinze, U.; and Wagenknect, W.; 1998. Comprehensive Cellulose Chemistry, Vol. 1, Wiley.VCH, Germany.
  • Krässig, H.A.; 1993. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Yverdon, Switzerland.
  • Kondo, T.; Sawatari, C.; 1996. Polymer, 37, 393–399.
  • Mahadeva, S.K.; Yi, C.; and Kim, J.;* 2009. Macromolecular Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp 116-120
  • Marco-A. De Paoli, M.A.;* Gazottib, W.A., 2002. J. Braz. Chem. Soc., Vol. 13, No. 4, 410-424,
  • Meyer, W. H.; 1998. Adv. Mater., 10, 440.
  • Nelson, M. L.; O Connor, T.; 1964. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 8, 1311–1324.
  • Nicoll, W.D.; Cox, N.L.; Conaway, R.F.; 1954. In: Ott, E., Spurlin, H.M., and Grafflin, M.W.,(eds) Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives. Part II. Interscience Publisher, New York, pp.825-871.
  • Nishino, T.; Matsuda, I.; Hirao, K.; 2004. Macromolecules, 37, 7683–7687.Oh, S. Y.; Yoo, D. I.; and Seo, G.; 2005. Carbohyd. Res., 340, 417
  • Schwanninger, M.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Pereira, H. & Hinterstoisser, B.; 2004. Vib. Spectrosc., 36,23–40.
  • Swatloski, R.P.; Spear, S.K.; Holbrey, J.D.; Rogers, R.D.; 2002. J Am Chem Soc 124:4974–4975.
  • Welton, T.; 1999. Chem Rev 99:2071–2083.

Download Paper Now (Right-Click and Save As..)