1*Koh, S. P., 1Jamaluddin, A., 2Alitheen, 2Mohd-Ali, N. B.,
2Mohd-Yusof, N., H., 3Yeap, S. K., & 1Long, K.

1Biotechnology Research Centre,
Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute (MARDI)
2Department of Cell & Molecular Biology,
Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
3Institute of Bioscience,
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

ABSTRACT. In this study, soybean was subjected to both fermentation and germination process that was exposed either in an aerobic or anaerobic condition or combination of both. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids content and antioxidants properties of both fermented and germinated soybean were analyzed. In all cases, the fermented soybean inoculated with Rhizopus 5351 strain were noted to have high content of GABA, essential amino acids and better antioxidant activities than germinated soybean. It was observed that fermented soybean subjected to both combination of aerobic and anaerobic incubation treatment (FSB3) had the highest content of GABA with the abundant of beneficial free and essential amino acids content, which was 0.328, 3.212 and 1.104 g/100g dry weight, respectively. In addition, sample FSB3 also showed the highest content of total phenolic compound (22.56 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 value of 20 mg extract/mL among other soybean treatment. Within germination process, anaerobic germinated soybean at 72 h appeared to have better yield of GABA and amino acids content with higher antioxidant activities than other germinated soybean under aerobic condition. This sample was observed to contain higher amount of total phenolic compound and ferric reducing antioxidant power with lower value of IC50. This study showed that the fermented soybean inoculated with Rhizopus 5351 strain is able to produce better nutritive value when compared to germinated soybean either in aerobic or anaerobic condition.

KEYWORDS. Antioxidant; Fermentation; g-amino butyric acid (GABA); Germination; Soybean


  • Adeghate, E., & Ponery, A. S. 2002. GABA in the Endocrine Pancreas: Cellular Localization and Function in Normal and Diabetic Rats. Tissue Cell, 34: 1-6.

  • Aoki, H., Uda, I., Tagami, K., Furuya, Y., Endo, Y., & Fujimoto, K. 2003. The Production of a New Tempeh-like Fermented Soybean Containing a High Level of Γ-Aminobutyric Acid by Anaerobic Incubation with Rhizopus. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 67: 1018-1023.

  • Babu, P. D., Bhakyaraj, R., & Vidhyalakshmi, R. 2009. A Low Cost Nutritious Food “Tempeh”- A Review. World J. of Dairy & Food Sciences, 4: 22-27.

  • Bau, H. M., Villanme, C., Nicolos, J. P., & Mejean, L. 1997. Effect of Germination on Chemical Composition, Biochemical Constitutes and Antinutritional Factors of Soy Bean (Glycine Max) Seeds. Journal of the Science of Food Agriculture, 73: 1-9.

  • Bisping, B., Hering, L., Baumann, U., Denter, I, Keuth, S., & Rehm, H. J. 1993. Tempe Fermentation: Some Aspects of Formation of Γ-Linolenic Acid, Proteases and Vitamins. Biotechnology Advances, 11: 481-493.

  • Brouché, N., & Fromm, H. 2004. GABA in Plants: Just a Metabolite? Trends in Plant Science, 9: 110-115.

  • Chung, H. J., Jang, S. H., Cho, H., Y., & Lim, S. T. 2009. Effects of Steeping and Anaerobic Treatment on GABA (Γ-Aminobutyric Acid) Content in Germinated Waxy Hull-Less Barley. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 42: 1712-1716.

  • El-Adawy, T. A. 2002. Nutritional Composition and Antimutritional Factors of Chickpeas (Cicer Arietinum L.) undergoing Different Cooking Methods and Germination. Plant Food for human Nutritional, 57: 83-97.

  • Hiran, P., Kerdchoechuen, O., & Laohakunjit, N. 2011. Improvement of Nutritional Values of Germinated Kidney Bean by Fermentation. Journal of Agricultural Science, 42 (2) (suppl.): 505-508.

  • Jannoey, P., Niamsup, H., Lumyong, S., Suzuki, T., Katayama, T., & Chairote, G. 2010. Comparison of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production in Thai Rice Grains. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26: 257-263.

  • Katina, K., Laitila, A., Juvonen, R., Liukkonen, K-H., Kariluoto, S., Piironen, V., Lindbergh, R., Armand, P., & Poutanen, K., 2007, Bran Fermentation as a Means to Enhance Technological Properties and Bioactivityof Rye. Food Microbiology, 24: 175-186.

  • Khalil, A. H., & Mansour, E. H. 1995. The Effect of Cooking, Autoclaving and Germination on the Nutritional Quality of Faba Beans. Food Chemistry, 54: 177-182.

  • Liem, I. T. H., Steinkraus, K. H., & Cronk, T. C. 1977. Production of Vitamin B-12 in Tempeh, a Fermented Soybean Food. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 34: 773-776.

  • Marina, A. M., Che Man, Y. B., & Nazimah, S. A. H. 2009. Chemical Properties of Virgin Coconut Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86: 301-307.

  • McCue, P., & Shetty, K. 2004. Health Benefits of Soy Isoflavonoids and Strategies for Enhancement: A Review. CRC Critical reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 44: 361-367.

  • Möhler, H. 2011. The Rise of a New GABA Pharmacology. Neuropharmacology, 60: 1042-1049.

  • Nakamura, T., Matsubayashi, T., Kamachi, K., Hasegawa, T., Ando, Y., & Omari, M. 2000. Γ- Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)-Rich Chlorella Depress the Elevation of Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). Nippon Nőgeikagaku Kaishi, 74: 907-909.

  • Oh, C. H., & Oh, S. H. 2004. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Extracts with Enhanced Levels of GABA on Cancer Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis. Journal of Medicinal Food, 7: 19-23.

  • Ortega, A. 2003. A New Role for GABA: Inhibition of Tumor Cell Migration. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 24: 151-154.

  • Park, C. S., Nam, S. J., Choi, W. K., Pyun, Y. R., Cho, H. Y., Cho, S. C., Kook, M. C., Lee, C. W., & Chung, S. Y. 2009. Lactic Acid Bacteria Culture of Mung Bean and the Preparation Method of the Same, and the Cosmetic Composition Comprising the Same. US 2009/0068150 A1.

  • Park, K. B., & Oh, S. H. 2007. Production of Yogurt with Enhanced Levels of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Valuable Nutrients using Lactic Acid Bacteria and Germinated Soybean Extract. Bioresource Technology, 98: 1675-1679.

  • Ran, C. Y., Chang, J. Y., & Chang, H. C. 2007. Production of γ-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus buchneri Isolated from Kimchi and its Neuroprotective Effect on Neuronal Cells. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17: 104-109.

  • Thaipong, K., Boonprakob, U., Crosby, K., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., & Byrne, D. H. 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and ORAC Assays for Estimating Antioxidant Activity from Guava Fruit Extracts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19: 669-675.

  • Watanabe, N., Fujimoto, K., & Aoki, H. 2007. Antioxidant Activities of the Water-Soluble Fraction in Tempeh-Like Fermented Soybean. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 58: 577 – 587.

  • Watanabe, N., Aoki, H., & Fujimoto, K. 2008. Fermentation of Soybean by Rhizopus Promotes the Calcium Absorption Ratio in Rats. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88: 2749- 2752.

  • Wu, Z., Song, L., & Huang, D. 2011. Polyphenolic Antioxidants and Phytoalexins Changes in Germinating Legume Seeds with Food Grade Fungal Rhizopus Oligosporus Stress. Proceedings 12th ASEAN Food Conference, BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand. p. 96-107.

Download Full Paper Here (Right Click and Save As..)