Abu Naser Md. Ahsanul Haque

BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT. Effects of electrolyte and liquor ratio were observed on dyeing of cotton fabric with bi-functional Fluoro Chloro Pyrimidene (FCP), bi-functional Monochlorotriazine-Vinyl Sulphone (MCT-VS) and mono functional Monochlorotriazine (MCT) reactive dyes. For this experiment single joursey knitted fabrics were taken. The selected dyestuffs were Drimarene Yellow K-2R (FCP), Drimarene Red CI-5B (MCT-VS) and Drimarene Navy X-GN (MCT). 1% on the weight of fabric (owf) of each dye was considered for producing 15 single shades by varying the electrolyte amount and liquor ratio. Gluaber salt was used in each dye bath as electrolyte. The post dye liquors were tested in absorbance spectrophotometer (UV 1800) to measure the absorbance of those solutions. Beer-Lambert law was used to get concentration from absorbance and then the exhaustion% was calculated. The dyed fabric samples were tested in a reflectance spectrophotometer (datacolor 650) to get the color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, c*, h*). The results show that FCP dye exhaustion was the best among these three and MCT dye exhaustion was the least but it can be improved by increasing the electrolyte. MCT-VS dye has a tendency to changing its hue in higher electrolyte amount or higher liquor ratios.

KEYWORDS. Electrolyte; Liquor ratio; Chroma; Hue; Exhaustion.


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Roslina Jawan, Gabriela J. Joeplik, Halyena Indan, Mary Magdelina Binti George, & Jualang Azlan Gansau*

School of Science and Technology,
Unit for Orchid Studies, Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

ABSTRACT. Vanda dearei is an endemic orchid of Borneo and has been listed as an endangered orchid in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Vanda dearei has beautiful pale yellow-flowers, large petals and strongly scented. Therefore, in vitro micropropagation has been applied in order to develop a novel micropropagation method to mass produce this species. Through callus culture techniques, orchids with limited resources can be mass propagated in a shorter period. However, callus culture in orchid is hardly maintain due somatic embryogenesis properties and easily regenerated to plantlets. Thus, this study aims to develop an efficient protocol for callus cultures of V. dearei by manipulating basal media strengths and carbon sources. Callus induced from the leaf segments of V. dearei were used as explants and were cultured on KC, Mitra, MS and VW basal medium at different nutrient strengths (1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2x) added with 1.0:0.1 mg/l TDZ:NAA and 1 to 4% (w/v) of sucrose, glucose or fructose, respectively. All cultures were incubated in the dark with temperature of 25±2°C. Results showed that callus growth has improved with decreased nutrients strength of basal media. Quarter strength of Mitra medium promotes the best condition for callus maintenance to approximately 8.00±17.89% at 8 weeks of culture. This is followed by the ½ strength of MS and ¼ strength of VW with 8.00±10.95% and 5.00±10.00%, respectively. Callus grown on the other basal strengths are mainly differentiated and developed into protocorm like bodies (PLBs), especially at double strengths (100±0% explants turn into PLBs). In addition, low percentage of necrosis (less than 28%) was also observed on Mitra basal medium compared to the other media (more than 36%). Sucrose has been identified as the best carbon source to support callus growth followed by glucose and fructose. Addition of 1% (w/v) sucrose increased callus maintenance up to 32±17.9%, promote cell differentiation and increased average size of callus (1.52±0.63 callus score). This treatment also support the longest retention time of explant maintained in callus for 5 weeks and has the lowest percentage of callus necrosis (20±24.5%).

KEYWORDS. Vanda dearei; Orchid; Micropropagation; Callus Maintenance


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Ismail Abd Rahim

Natural Disasters Research Unit,
School of Sciences & Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Phone: 088 320000 (5734/5999), Fax: 088 435324

ABSTRACT. This paper discusses the stability and to propose preliminary rock cut slope protection and stabilization measures for the Oligocene to Late Miocene Temburung Formation along the Beaufort-Tenom railway, Sabah. Nine (9) slopes were selected for this study. Geological mapping, discontinuity survey, kinematic analysis and prescriptive measures were used in this study. Result of this study conclude that the mode of failures are wedge, planar, circular and complex types. Gunite, soil nails, wire mesh, weep holes, subsurface drainage, slope reprofiling, terracing and surface drainage are proposed stabilization and protection measures for the slope in study area.

KEYWORDS. Temburung Formation, Beaufort-Tenom, Railway, slope stability, mode of failure.


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Siti Aishah Mohd Ali*, Tan Wei Hsiang, Rohana Tair, Apsa Abdul Naser, & Fatin Sualin

Water Research Unit, School of Science and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

ABSTRACT. Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were investigated in surface sediments from Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) – Tuaran coastal area, Sabah. Samples were collected using Ponar grab sampler in ten different stations at the site area. The heavy metals were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) after the surface sediments were digested with aqua regia (HNO3: HCl) solution. The overall mean and range of heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediments were: Cd (0.55, 0.27 – 1.06 mg/kg), Cr (4.93, 1.97 – 10.30 mg/kg), Cu (7.40, 0 – 18.57 mg/kg), Pb (3.88, 0 – 14.4 mg/kg) and Zn (31.84, 11.60 – 67.1 mg/kg) respectively. Overall, the heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments were not exceeded the Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) limit except for Cd which a bit higher than 0.7 mg kg-1 indicating considered slightly pollute.

KEYWORDS. Heavy metals, ICP-OES, aqua-regia solution, surface sediments


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Carolyn Payus* & Usha Nandini

Water Research Unit,
Environmental Science Program,
Faculty of Science & Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT. The research was conducted to determine the hygiene quality of private beach resort seawater in Sabah. Total coliform and fecal coliform were analyzed at five selected sampling locations at the resort located in Kota Kinabalu. Identification was done through the Membrane Filtration Method from APHA standard. The results showed that the highest concentration of total coliform has reached 105 cfu/100ml; and fecal coliform reached up to 92 cfu/100ml. This showed that total coliform and fecal coliform were presence in the private beach of the resort. However, it is still acceptable under Class IIB Malaysian Interim Water Quality Standard whereby both coliform contents were below 5000 cfu/ml for total coliform and 400 cfu/ml for fecal coliform. Thus, it can be concluded that the private beach is still in a good condition and suitable for recreational purposes. Contributing factors to the level of coliform contamination in the private beach of the resort are believed to be related due to the recreational activity and also the improper sanitation from the nearby local housing area. Therefore, to ensure the water quality of private beach is always under control, water quality monitoring should be done continuously to assure the recreational water is safe to be used by many.

KEYWORDS. Total coliform, fecal coliform, membrane filter method, in-situ water quality parameters, water quality monitoring


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Newati Wid* and Nigel Horan

School of Science & Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
School of Civil Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT. Phosphorus is a limited resource which is predicted to be exhausted at some point during the 21st century. However, it is present in wastewaters at concentrations that come close to supplying the nation’s annual requirements for fertiliser. Therefore, this study was conducted to study the potential of wastewater screenings which has received little attention that produced during wastewater treatment, for phosphorus recovery. Many papers have addressed the recovery of phosphate or ammonia as struvite from different type of waste. The most prominent usage of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) is as a slow-release fertiliser, suitable as replacement for chemical fertiliser, for agricultural application. In this study, digested liquor was obtained from anaerobically digested of wastewater screening. The experiments were carried out with and without chemical amendment to study the feasibility of phosphorus recovery, at different Mg:P molar ratio, i.e. 1.56:1 (without chemical amendment), 2:1 and 3:1 (with chemical amendments). Precipitation at 1.56:1 showed that phosphorus removal efficiency was 68% and recovered 0.52g amorphous calcium carbonate. Precipitation at 2:1 reduced phosphorus removal efficiency to 53% and the recovered solid was found to be calcium phosphate, with 0.33g precipitate. Precipitation at 3:1 was not economically interesting for P recovery as shown by its lowest removal efficiency and highest chemical usage. The results demonstrated that the presence of calcium and carbonate ion in the digested liquor highly interfere with phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite.

KEYWORDS. Phosphorus recovery; wastewater screenings; anaerobically digested liquor; precipitation technique.


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Yong Enn Lun

School of Science and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

ABSTRACT. The objective of this paper is to expose some empirical evidence regarding the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation, as stated by the Environmental Kuznet Curve theory. The issue here concerns specifically one dimension of environmental problems, which is the endangered biodiversity in the context of heavily globalised phenomenon and economic development around the world. Particularly, several groups of endangered biodiversity including bird, fish, mammal, and plant species are focused to represent the biodiversity loss circumstance. The analysis involves the construction of one composite indicator of endangered biodiversity. Scatter plots and correlation tests are used to identify the current status of most countries in terms of biodiversity loss against the international trade. The analysis uses the recent data of 2012 of the biodiversity and four decades of trade data of 180 countries. The paper also suggests four possibilities in which successful conservation of the current global biodiversity ecosystem is possible, but under some challenging pressures.

KEYWORDS. Biodiversity degradation, economics, trade.


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A. Sunarto*, J. Sulaiman, & A. Saudi

School of Science and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
School of Engineering and Information Technology
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.

ABSTRACT. In this study, we derive an unconditionally implicit finite difference approximation equation from the discretization of the one-dimensional linear time fractional diffusion equations by using the Caputo’s time fractional derivative. Then this approximation equation hence will be used to generate the corresponding system of linear equations. The approximation solution of the linear system is described via the implementation of Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iterative method. An example of the problem is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of SOR method. The findings of this study show that the proposed iterative method is superior compared with the Gauss-Seidel iterative method.

KEYWORDS. Caputo’s fractional derivative; Implicit Finite Difference Scheme; SOR Method


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Fatma Sabariah Alias, Latifah Abd Manaf*, Mariani Ho Nyuk Onn @Ariffin,
Sabrina J. Ho Abdullah

Faculty of Environmental Studies,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor

ABSTRACT. As urbanisation continues takes place, the management of solid waste is becoming a major environmental and public health problem in urban areas. In 2013, solid waste generation in Sabah was 2,062 390 kg/day where the values increase year by year where the waste generation rate in Sabah is 0.7 kg/capita. The amount will keep increasing without the improvement of linkage between government, local councils, collection service providers, traders, recycling centre operators, non-governmental organizations and related stakeholder in planning a proper solid waste management. This paper presents an overview of the solid waste management practices and challenges in Sabah respectively. There are about 23 local authority which responsible in collecting of municipal solid waste from commercial, institutional and residential areas, sweeping of roads and footways, beach and river cleaning and minimization of waste. The solid waste management is involved generation, storage, collection, processing, transfer and transport, disposal and treatment. However, uncollected area, immigrants, squatter villages and lack of human resource and finance has become the challenges to local authority in handling the solid waste management. Thus, solid waste should be manage efficiently due to sustainable environment and create a better quality life.

KEYWORDS. Solid waste, waste generation rate, local authority, solid waste management practices, challenges


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Ismail Abd Rahim & Sanudin Tahir

Natural Disasters Research Unit,
School of Science and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

ABSTRACT.Objectives of this study are to determine the rock mass quality and support estimate for a single lane railway tunnel by using rock mass classification system at km 137.1 Tenom, Sabah. The study area is underlain by the Late Eocene – Early Miocene Crocker Formation. Rock Structure Rating (RSR), Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Rock Mass Quality (Q) systems are selected rock mass classification for this study. Field study includes geological mapping and discontinuity survey. Laboratory analysis are petrographic study and point load test. Data analysis are kinematic analysis and RSR, RMR and Q systems parameter values evaluation and calculation. The result shows that rock mass quality of RSR, RMR and Q systems are 80, 77 (good) and 2.12 (poor), respectively. Support estimate for RSR is 25mm diameter spot rock bolts. RMR are 20mm diameter, 3m length and 2.5m spacing systematic rock bolts with occasional wire mesh and 50mm shotcrete on crown. Installation of steel sets are unnecessary. Support estimate for Q system are 1.5 space of systematic rock bolts with 5cm shotcrete and 1.6-2m space without shotcrete on crown and wall, respectively. Thus, support estimate based on rock mass classification for the tunnel in study area are 20mm diameter, 3m length and 2m spacing of rock bolts, 50mm thick shotcrete on crown and weep hole in western section.

KEYWORDS. Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Rock Structure Rating (RSR), Q system, Crocker Formation, Tenom.


  • Barton, N., Lien, R., & Lunde, F. J. 1974. Engineering Classification of Rock Masses for the Design of Tunnel Support. Rock Mechanics, 6 (4): 189-236.

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  • Grimstand, E. & Barton, N. 1993. Updating of the Q-system for NMT. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Sprayed Concrete, Fagernes, Norway, pp. 46-66.

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  • Markland, J. T. 1972. A useful technique for estimating the stability of rock slopes when the rigid wedge slide type of failure is expected. Imperial College Rock Mechanics Research Reprint, no. 9.

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Steven S.K. Kong*, Justin Sentian

Climate Change Research Group,
School of Science and Technology,
University Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT.Climate change is a significant change of weather pattern over a long period of time. Malaysia can be vulnerable to such impact, since economics of this region are strongly relies on agriculture and natural sources. This paper simulated the solar radiation and total cloud fraction for Malaysia by the end of 21st century based on the A2 and the B2 scenarios by utilizing the latest generation of the Hadley Centre regional climate modeling system, PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies). Relative to the baseline scenario, the average increase in solar radiation was by 5 – 12Wm^(-2) under the A2 scenario and by 3 – 10Wm^(-2) under the B2 scenario. The changes were significant at 95% confidence level across most of the land area. The average total fraction over Malaysia was projected to reduce by 0.14 to 0.032 under the A2 scenario and 0.11 to 0.0057 under the B2 scenario compared to the baseline scenario. Significant changes were observed over whole domain of investigation during DJF (December-January-February) under both scenarios. Study results suggest that a significant change in climate variability may potentially increase the climate-related risks such as air quality impact and vulnerability in the region.

KEYWORDS. Climate Changes, Cloud Fraction, Malaysia, PRECIS, Solar Radiation


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Jessie Beliku* & Ejria Saleh

Department of Fisheries-Sabah,
Wisma Pertanian Sabah, Level 4, Block B, Jl. Tasik Luyang,
88624 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Borneo Marine Research Institute,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu,Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. The northern part of Sabah is largely formed by the proposed Tun Mustapha Park (TMP). It is also as a part of Priority Conservation Areas (PCA) in the Malaysian side of Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME) and known as Kudat-Banggi PCA. It has been recognized to be one of globally significant and outstanding in term of marine ecosystems, biodiversity and identified as a route for turtle from the South China Sea to Sulu Sea. Fisheries activities are among the important source of income to coastal communities and have contributed to higher fish and prawn landing in Sabah. The objective of this study is to access fisheries activities and their impact on turtles. The study was carried out through a combination of survey interviews and observation field trips on fishing boats. Interviews were conducted to the main fishing gears (gill nets, shrimp and fish trawl net) used within this area from October 2007 to October 2008 (one year). Onboard observations on gill net fishing field trips near the main town of Banggi, Karakit and coastal villages were carried out between October 2008 and March 2009. As results, 79 fishers operating with gill nets were interviewed while 95 and 41 fishers working on board shrimp trawl net and fish trawl net boats, respectively. There was 116 gill net fishing field trips have been carried out. Turtles were sighted within the fishing grounds and an estimated maximumtotal of 1326.6 turtles per year are accidently catch by fishers. Turtle bycatch was 66.1% from gillnets, 25.9% from fish trawl net and 8% by shrimp trawl. Most turtles reported to be bycatch by fishing gears were located in near shore waters of the islands which are important as fishing ground in TMP. The information gathered from this study support the establishment of the proposed TMP which is importance for the planning and future management plan of the area. Also, the information on status of the fishing gears used by the fishers is needed for marine resources conservation program to the coastal communities.

KEYWORDS. Fisheries activities, turtles, bycatch, fishing ground, Tun Mustapha Park


  • Aziz, A. A, 2011. Feasibility Study on Development of a Wind Turbine Energy Generation system for Community Requirements of Pulau Banggi Sabah. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

  • Beliku, J., Saleh, E., and Dacho, N. 2012. Fishing Gear and Hot Spot Areas in Proposed Tun Mustapha Park, Kudat, Sabah in International Seminar on Marine Science and Aquaculture Sustainable Development & Management of Aquatic Resources in a Changing Climate on 13-15 March 2012(abstract). Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.

  • Chan, E. H, 1991. Sea Turtle. The State of Nature Conservation in Malaysia. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. P. 120-134.

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