Dayang Nur Sakinah Musa*, Rebecca Mishallyne Afat, Melissa Sharmah Gilbert, Kamlisa Uni Kamlun
Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author : firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. Peat composes of organic matter and easily drying out during the dry season. This situation will result in a smouldering fire in peat swamp forest especially with the help of El-Nino phenomenon and eventually will destroy home for endangered species such as Orangutan. It is important in order to study the effect of forest fire on peat thermal properties. The study was conducted in Binsuluk Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia, The aims of this study were to measure the heat of content and burning time of peat at a different level and to find the relationship of the heat of content in Binsuluk Forest Reserve. Samples of burnt peat were taken using an auger at 1.5 m, 2.0 m, 2.5 m and 3.0 m depths. The peat samples were tested for heat of content (MJ Kg-1) and burning time (minutes). Results shown that peat has a higher heat of content at a depth of 3.0 m with 51.652.07 MJ Kg-1 and lower heat of content at 2.5 m depth with 49.600.46 MJ Kg-1. Burnt peat takes longer time recorded at 3.0 m peat depth with mean value of 127.201.88 minutes and the shorter time recorded at the depth of 1.5 m with mean 101.400.51 minutes. Thus, these data suggest that increases in the heat of content of the peat can increase the time for the peat to completely burnt. The heat content and burning time were perhaps influenced by the moisture content of the peat in Binsuluk Forest Reserve with range of moisture content between 209.880.18 % to 1013.511.39 % . The information on thermal properties of peat in Sabah is important for the forest managers and researchers to get an idea of the impact of forest fire on peat and can create better management on the peat swamp forest area.
KEYNOTES: Peat swamp forest, Peat fire, Burning time, Heat of Content
- Boehm, H. D. V., Siegert, F., Rieley, J. O., Page, S. E., Jauhiainen, J., Vasander, H., & Jaya, A. (2001, November). Fire Impacts And Carbon Release On Tropical Peatlands In Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. In Proceedings Of The 22nd Asian Conference On Remote Sensing (Pp. 5-9). Cattau, M. E., Harrison, M. E., Shinyo, I., Tungau, S., Uriarte, M., & DeFries, R. (2016). Sources of anthropogenic fire ignitions on the peat-swamp landscape in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Environmental Change, 39, 205-219.
- Comas, X., Terry, N., Slater, L., Warren, M., Kolka, R., Kristiyono, A., … & Darusman, T. (2015). Imaging Tropical Peatlands In Indonesia Using Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) And Electrical Resistivity Imaging (Eri): Implications For Carbon Stock Estimates And Peat Soil Characterization. Biogeosciences, 12(10), 2995-3007. Frandsen, W.H. (1997). Ignition probability of organic soils. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(9), 1471 -1477.
- Huang, X., & Rein, G. (2019). Upward-and-downward spread of smoldering peat fire. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 37(3), 4025-4033. Huang, X., Francesco, R., Michela, G., & Guillermo, R. (2016). “Experimental Study of the Formation and Collapse of an Overhang in the Lateral Spread of Smouldering Peat Fires.” Combustion and Flame 168: 393–402. IKA. (1998). IKA-Calorimeter system C 5000 Manual.
- Melling, L., Uyo, L. J., Goh, K. J., Hatano, R., & Osaki, M. (2006). Soils Of Loagan Bunut National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia-Final Report. Undp/Gef Funded Project On The Conservation And Sustainable Use Of Tropical Peat Swamp Forests And Associated Wetland Ecosystems.
- Musa, D.N.S., & Ramli, S.N. (2017). “Fire Threat in Peat Swamp Forest in Malaysia.” In Biology Vol. 1 Emerging Themes in Fundamental and Applied Sciences, , Chapter 3. Musa, D. N. S., & Nuruddin, A.A. (2015). “Calorific Value of Leaves of Selected Dipterocarp Trees Species in Piah Forest Reserve, Perak.” Journal of Tropical Resources and Sustainable Science 3(1): 132–34.
- Page, S. E., Rieley, J. O., & Banks, C. J. (2011). Global And Regional Importance Of The Tropical Peatland Carbon Pool. Global Change Biology, 17(2), 798-818.
- Putra, R., Sutriyono, E., Kadir, S., & Iskandar, I. (2019). UNDERSTANDING OF FIRE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SOUTH SUMATRA PEAT AREA DURING THE LAST TWO DECADES. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATE, 16(54), 146-151.
- Rein, G., Cohen, S., & Simeoni, A. (2009). Carbon Emissions From Smouldering Peat In Shallow And Strong Fronts. Proceedings Of The Combustion Institute, 32(2), 2489-2496. SFD. (201 6). Sabah Forestry Department Annual Report 201 6. Pg.219. SFD. (2019). Map of Binsuluk Forest Reserve (Class 1).
- Syaufina, L., Nuruddin, A. A., Basharuddin, J., See, L. F., & Yusof, M. R. M. (2004). The effects of climatic variations on peat swamp forest condition and peat combustibility. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 10(1).
- Usup, A., Hashimoto, Y., Takahashi, H., & Hayasaka, H. (2004). Combustion And Thermal Characteristics Of Peat Fire In Tropical Peatland In Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropics, 14(1), 1 -19.
- Yoshino, K., Nagano, T., Ishida, T., Ishioka, Y., & Sirichuaychoo, W. (2002). Distribution Of Peat Depth In Tropical Peat Swamp Area In Narathiwat Of The Southern Part Of Thailand. Rural
And Environment Engineering, 2002(43), 13-22.
- Zainorabidin, A., & Mohamad, H. M. (2016). A Geotechnical Exploration Of Sabah Peat Soil: Engineering Classifications And Field Surveys. Ejge, 21, 6671 -6687.