Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud*, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

ABSTRACT. Large areas of tropical forest worldwide have been converted rapidly into forest plantation. Plantation can play an important role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability, and biological diversity to degraded tropical lands. However, the conversion of forest areas to plantation rapidly resulting birds to lose their natural habitat. Therefore, Acacia mangium plantations have the potential as the refuges for birds. As such, this study was conducted to investigate the bird population in 2-year Acacia mangium plantation, Sabah Forest Industries (SFI), Sabah to determine the bird population density and diversity of 2 year mangium plantation in SFI. There is no published information of the detailed status of bird in SFI yet. Bird survey was done by using point count method. The bird population density was analyzed by using distance 6.2 and bird diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index. A total of 343 birds belong to 53 species from 21 families were detected. The bird population in 2-year mangium plantation was 17.71 individual per hectare and Shannon-Wiener diversity index for bird diversity was 3.24. This study shows that the bird population density and diversity in SFI were higher as compared to other past studies in Borneo plantation area.

KEYWORDS. Forest plantation, population density, bird diversity, Acacia mangium,  Sabah



  • Bibi, F. & Ali, Z. 2013. Measurement of diversity indices of Avian communities at Taunsa Barrage wildlife sanctuary, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant, 23 (2): 469-474.
  • Buckland, S. T., Russell, R. E., Dickson, B. G., Saab, V. A., Gorman, D. N. & Block, W. M. 2009. Analyzing designed experiments in distance sampling. Journal of Agriculture Biological, and Environmental Statistic, 14 (4): 432-442.
  • Fujita, M. S., Prawiradilaga, D. M. & Yoshimura, T. 2014. Roles of fragmented and logged forests for bird communities in industrial Acacia mangium plantation in Indonesia. Ecological Research, 29 (4): 741-755.
  • Gregory, R. D and Strien, A. V. 2010. Wild bird indicators: using composite population trends of birds as measures of environmental health. Ornithological Science, 9: 3-22.
  • Lindell, C. A., Chomentowski, W. H. & Zook, J.R. 2003. Characteristic of bird species using forest and agriculture land covers in sounthern Costa Rica. Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 2419-2441.
  • Mallari, N. A. D., Collar, N. J., Lee, D. C., McGowan, P. J. K., Wilkinson, R. & Marsden, S. J. 2011. Population densities of understorey birds across a habitat gradient in Palawan, Philippines: implications for conservation. Fauna & Flora International, Oryx, 45 (2): 234-242.
  • Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert Mojiol, A. R., Affendy, H., Maluda, J. & Immit, S. 2008. Rapid assesment on the abundance of bird species utilising the Kinabalu Wetland Centre mangroves. Journal of Tropical  Biology and Conservation, 4 (1): 99-107.
  • Morelli, F. 2013. Relative importance of marginal vegetation (shrubs, hedgerows, isolated trees) surrogate of HNV farmland for bird species distribution Central Italy. Ecological Engineering, 57: 261 -266.
  • Parrotta, J. A. 1992. The role of plantation forests in rehabilitating degraded tropical ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 41 (2): 115-133.
  • Pettingill, O. S., Jr. 1985. Ornithology in Laboratory and Field. Fifth Edition. Academic Press Inc. Ltd., London. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. 2014. Phillipps’ Field Guide To Birds of Borneo. John Beaufoy Publishing, United Kingdom.
  • Ralph, C. J., Geupel, G. R., Pyle, P., Martin, T. E. & DeSante, D. F. 1993. Handbook of field method for monitoring land birds. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-144. Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, Albany, California.
  • Rajpar, M. N. & Zakaria, M. 2010. Density and diversity of water birds and terrestrial birds at Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Selangor Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 658-666.
  • SFI. 2015. SFI Mendulong Map. Sipitang, Sabah. Sheldon, F. H., Styring, A. R. & Hosner, P. A. 2010. Bird species richness in a Bornean exotic tree plantation: A long-term perspective. Biological Conservation, 143: 399- 407.
  • Sheldon, F. H. & Strying, A. R. 2011. Bird diversity differs between industrial tree plantations on Borneo: Implications for conservation planning. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 59 (2): 295-309.
  • Styring, A. R., Ragai, R., Unggang, J., Stuebing, R., Hosner, P. A. & Sheldon, F. H. 2011. Bird community assembly in Bornean Industrial Tree Plantations: Effects of forest age and structure. Forest Ecology and Management, 261: 531-544.
  • Sodhi, N. S., Soh, M. C., Prawiradilaga, D. M., Darjono, D. M. & Brook, B. W. 2005. Persistance of Lowland Rainforest Birds in a Recently Logged Area in Central Java. Bird Conservation International, 15 (2): 173-191.
  • Wilsey, B. & Stirling. 2007. Species richness and evenness respond in a different manner to propagule density in developing prairie microcosm communities. Journal of Plant Ecology, 190: 259-273.
  • Wee, Y.C. 2009. Observation on the behavior of the yellow-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus goiavier (Scopoli) in two instances of failed nesting. Nature in Singapore, 2: 347-352.
  • Wells, D. R., 2007. The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Volume II. Passerines.
  • Christopher Helm, London. 800 pp. Wong, T. S. 2012. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Bird of Borneo. John Beaufoy Publishing, United Kingdom.
  • Zakaria, M., Puan, C. L., Yusuf, M. E. 2005. Comparison of Species Composition in Three Forest Types: Toward Using Bird as Indicator of Forest Ecosystem Health. Journal of Biological Sciences, 5 (6): 734-737.
  • Zakaria, M., Rajpar, M. N. & Sajap, S. A. 2009. Species diversity and feeding guilds of birds in Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Zoological Research, 5 (3): 86-100.
  • Zakaria, M. & Rajpar, M. N. 2010. Bird species composition and feeding guilds based on point count and mist nesting method at The Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Penisular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 21 (2): 7-32.
  • Zakaria, M. & Rajpar, M. N. 2013. Density and diversity of water birds and terrestrial birds in man-made marsh, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 42 (10): 1483-1492.

Download Full Paper Here (Right-Click and Save As.. )