Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail, Mahyar Kolivand

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innovation Centre of Excellence)
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Realistic soft shadows in Augmented Reality (AR) is a fascinating topic in computer graphics. Many researchers are involved to have a significant improvement on this demand. In this paper, we have presented a new technique to produce soft shadows using one of the well-known methods in mathematics called Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic is taken into account to generate the realistic soft shadows in AR. The wide light source is split into some parts that each of them plays the rule of a single light source. The desired soft shadow is generated by splitting the wide light source into multiple parts and considering each part as a single light source. The method which we called Fuzzy Soft Shadow is employed in AR to enhance the quality of semi-soft shadows and soft shadows.

KEYWORDS. Soft Shadows, Augmented Reality, Fuzzy logic



  • Aittala, M. 2010. Inverse lighting and photorealistic rendering for augmented reality. The Visual Computer, 26(6-8):669–678.
  • Annen, T., Dong, A., Mertens, T., Bekaert, P., Seidel, H-P. & Kautz, J. 2008. Real-time, allfrequency shadows in dynamic scenes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2008), 27(3):1–34.
  • Boulanger, K. 2008. Real-time realistic rendering of nature scenes with dynamic lighting. Ph.D Thesis, University of Central Florida.
  • Crown. F. 1977. Shadow algorithms for computer graphics. Computer Graphics, 11(2):242–247.
  • Debevec, P. 2004. Image-based lighting. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 22:26–34.
  • Haller, M., Drab, S. & Hartmann, W. 2003. A real-time shadow approach for an augmented reality application using shadow volumes. In Proceedings of VRST 2003, pp. 56–65.
  • Hensley, J., Scheuermann, T., Coombe, G., Singh, M. & Lastra, A. 2005. Fast summed-area table generation and its applications. Comput. Graph. Forum, 24(3):547–555.
  • Jacobs, K. & Loscos, C. 2004. Classification of illumination methods for mixed reality. In Eurographics, State-of-the-Art Report.
  • Jacobs, K., Nahmias, J-D., Angus, C., Reche, A., Loscos, C. & Steed, A.2005. Automatic generation of consistent shadows for augmented reality. Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2005, pp. 113–120, 2005.
  • Jensen, B. F., Laursen, J. S., Madsen, J. B. & Pedersen, T. W. 2009. Simplifying real time light source tracking and credible shadow generation for augmented reality. Institute for Media Technology, Aalborg University.
  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. 2013a. A survey of shadow volume algorithms in computer graphics. IETE Technical Review, 30(1):38-46.
  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. 2013b. Covering photometric properties of outdoor components with the effects of sky color in mixed reality. Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp.1–20.
  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. S. 2014. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality. PLoS ONE, 9(9): e108334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108334
  • Madsen, C. B. & Lal, B. B. 2013. Estimating outdoor illumination conditions based on detection of dynamic shadows. Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics. Theory and Applications, Springer.
  • Madsen, C. B. & Nielsen, M. 2008. Towards probe-less augmented reality. A Position Paper, Computer Vision and Media Technology Lab. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
  • Nowrouzezahrai, D., Geiger, S., Mitchell, K., Sumner, R., Jarosz, W. & Gross, M. 2011. Light factorization for mixed-frequency shadows in augmented reality. 10th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), pp. 173–179.
  • Ro ̈nnberg, S. 2004. Real-time rendering of natural illumination. Citeseer.
  • Williams, L. 1978. Casting curved shadows on curved surfaces. SIGGRAPH ’78, 12(3): 270- 274 1978.
  • Xing, G. Y., Zhou, X. H., Liu, Y. L., Qin, X. Y. & Peng. Q.S. 2013. Online illumination estimation of outdoor scenes based on videos containing no shadow area. Science China Information Sciences, 56(3):1–11.
  • Yan, F. 2008. Estimation of light source environment for illumination consistency of augmented reality. In First International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, 3:771–775.
  • Zadeh, L. A. 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and control, 8(3):338–353.


Download Full Paper Here (Right-Click and Save As.. )