CROWD SIMULATION BASED ON FLOCKING BEHAVIOUR ON PARALLEL CUDA PLATFORM

Norhafiza Hamzah*, Norsuzila Yusof & Z.A.Omar
School of Science and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
*hafiza@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This research is focused on flocking behaviour algorithm to simulate the crowd on parallel GPU using CUDA technology. The analysis of frame rates is conducted to compare the crowd simulation on parallel GPU platform and on a single processor. The result shows that the crowd simulation on a parallel GPU platform is 15 frames per second for 16, 384 characters. This result is equivalent with the number of frames per second for crowd simulation on a single processor with 576 characters. Thus, the results demonstrate that crowd simulation is more efficient on the parallel GPU platform especially for the large scale data. KEYWORDS. Crowd simulation; Flocking behaviour; GPU computing; CUDA

 

REFERENCES

  • Jiang, H., Xu, W., Mao, T., Li, C., Xia, S. & Wang, Z. 2010. Continuum crowd simulation in complex environments. Computers & Graphics, 34(5): 537-544.
  • Reynolds, C. 2006. Big fast crowds on PS3. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on Videogames. Boston, Massachusetts: ACM, (pp.113-121).
  • Saboia, P. & Goldenstein, S. 2012. Vis Comput. Crowd simulation:applying mobile grids to  the social force model, pp.1039-1048.
  • Serrano, M. I. 2011. Flock Implementation for the Blender Game Engine. The Florida State University.
  • Passos, E., Joselli, M., Zamith, M., Rocha, J., Clua, E., Montenegro, A., Conci, A. & Feijó, B. 2008. Supermassive crowd simulation on GPU based on emergent behavior. Proceedings of the Seventh Brazilian Symposium on Computer Games and Digital Entertainment (SBGames’08), Sciedade Brasileira de Computação, SBC, pp.70-75.

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PROPERTIES OF SMALL DIAMETER ACACIA HYBRID LOGS FOR BIOCOMPOSITES PRODUCTION

Rafeadah Rusli*, Hashim W. Samsi,
Roszaini Kadir, Salmiah Ujang, Zaihan Jalaludin, & Suffian Misran

Biocomposite and Wood Protection Programme,
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong 52109 Selangor, Malaysia
E-mail: rafeadah@frim.gov.my

ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using juvenile Acacia hybrid in manufacturing biocomposite boards. The mechanical, physical and fungal resistance properties of the boards produced were determined. The four year-old Acacia hybrid was obtained from several clones. The particleboards and medium density fibreboards (MDF) were manufactured at a target density of 750 kg/m3 and resin levels of 6, 8 and 10%. The results indicated that all particleboards and MDF complied with the Particleboard- specifications (BS EN 312:2010) and the Fibreboard specifications: Requirement for dry process boards (MDF) (BS EN 622-5: 2009, respectively. The fungal resistance properties of particleboard and MDF showed better in resistance compared to particleboard. The mechanical and physical properties of the particleboard were compared with the A. mangium particleboards.

KEYWORDS. Acacia hybrid, particleboard, medium density fibreboard, mechanical and physical properties, fungal resistance

REFERENCES:

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PHYTOREMEDIATION USING Typha angustifolia L. FOR MINE WATER EFFLUENCE TREATMENT: CASE STUDY OF EX-MAMUT COPPER MINE, RANAU, SABAH.

Lo Vun Yen & Kartini Saibeh*

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
E-mail: k_saibeh@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This research was carried out to determine the capability of Typha angustifolia L. for accumulation of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn). Typha angustifolia were planted in-situ in the tanks filled with mine water effluence (MWE) from the abandoned copper mine pit. The concentration of heavy metals in three replicates of plant root, stem and leaves were determined at Day 0 and Day 60. Samples of plant tissue were digested using hot concentrated nitric acid and the amounts of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The results showed that at Day 60, the concentrations of heavy metals were decreased in all plant part, except Fe and Cu were increased and Cr was increased in root and stem part.The results obtained from this research can be used as a fundamental data in maximizing the potential usage of T. angustifolia for mine water effluence (MWE) treatment at the ex-Mamut copper mine.

KEYWORDS. Accumulation, heavy metals, Typha angustifolia, mine water effluence

REFERENCES:

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AN ANALYSIS OF LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGES USING REMOTE SENSING DATA AND ITS IMPACTS TOWARDS SEDIMENT LOADING IN PADAS RIVER SUB-CATCHMENT

Ahmad Norazhar Mohd Yatim*1, Dazvieo Keniin2,
Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan1,2, & Carolyn Melissa Payus1

1 School of Science and Technology,
2Water Research Unit,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Email: norazhar@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Human activities surrounding natural rivers may cause its profile area to change in terms of depth and size. The objective of this study was to investigate the land use and land cover (LULC) changes and its impacts towards the soil stability on the sediment loading. Two satellite images Landsat 5 for year 1991 and Spot 5 for year 2010 were classified using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) which describe the land cover and land use change (LULC) within 20 years of time for the river sub-catchment. The study area was classified into seven categories on the basis of field study and remote sensing data. From the images, the land use alteration was dominated by palm oil with an increase of 16.84% and rubber plantation showed a declination of 31.29%. Meanwhile for land cover, cleared land area show the highest alteration with an increase of 22.63% while forest area showed declination with 18.68%. By using statistical methods, the trend analysis of suspended sediment was performed by One Way ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons test and the results showed that the suspended sediment concentration has increased by 10.07% (15.69 mg/L) from 1991 to 2010. This study shows that the conversion of forest and rubber areas to palm oil and urbanized area around the sub-catchment area have increased the sediment contribution to Sg. Padas, Beaufort.

KEYWORDS. Land use and land cover, sediment contribution, remote sensing and GIS

REFERENCES:

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POWER ADDED EFFICIENCY MODEL FOR MESFET CLASS E POWER AMPLIFIER USING JACKKNIFE RESAMPLING

ABSTRACT. There are several types of amplifier classes, and this includes the class E amplifier. The class E can achieve its efficiency up to 100%. This paper thus aims on getting the best model in estimating the power added efficiency of Class E power amplifier circuit using Silicon Carbide MESFET. Twelve models are obtained from three independent variables; DC current (Idc), drain voltage (Vdc), and power out (Pout). The original data set of 7 is generated to become 105 data samples (21 sets x 5 observations where each set with two missing observations) using the Jackknife sampling technique at the first stage (7C2). The power added efficiency model employs the Multiple Regression (MR) technique up to the second order of interactions. The best model is based on the eight selection criteria (8SC). The best model is found to be model M12.5.0, chosen from the six selected model).Efficiency factors affect the power added efficiency estimation are found to be X3(IDC) and X12(interaction between Pout and VDS).

KEYWORDS. Multiple Regression; Jackknife; interactions; Power Added Efficiency; Efficiency Factors.

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REFERENCES

Aminatul Hawa Yahaya, Noraini Abdullah, & Zainodin H. J. 2012. Multiple Regression Models up to First-order Interaction on Hydrochemistry Properties. Asian Journal of
Mathematics and Statistics, 5 (4): 121-131.

Bameri, H, Hakimi, A., & Movahhdi, M. 2011. A Linear-high Range Output Power Control Technique for Cascade Power Amplifier. Microelectronics Journal, 42: 1025-1031.

Franco, M., & Katz, A. J. 2005. Class E Silicon Carbide VHF Power Amplifier. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ,  08628, USA.

Lucyszyn, S. 1997. Power-added Efficiency Errors with RF Power Amplifiers. International Journal of Electronics 82 (3): 303-312.

Lee, Y. S., & Jeong Y. H. 2007. A High-Efficiency Class-E Amplifier Using Sic MESFET. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 49 (6): 1447-1449.

Milosevic, D., Van Der Tang, J., & Van Roermun, A. 2002. Investigation on Technological Aspects of Class E RF Power Amplifier for UMTS Applications, in CiteSeerX.

Noraini Abdullah, Zainodin Haji Jubok, & Nigel Jonney J. B. 2008. Multiple Regression Models of the Volumetric Stem Biomass. WSEAS Transactions on Mathematics, 7 (7): 492-502.

Noraini Abdullah, Zainodin Haji Jubok, & Amran Ahmed. 2012. Sustainable Urban Forest Using Multiple Regression Models. Research Journal of Forestry, 6 (1):1-15.

Lind, D. A, Marchal, W. G., & Mason, R. D. 2005. Statistical Technique in Business and Economics, 11th Edn., McGraw-Hill Inc, New York, USA.

Quenouille, M. H. 1949. Problems in Plane Sampling. Annal of Mathematical Statistics, 20 (3): 355- 375. Power Added Efficiency Model for Mesfet Class E Power Amplifier using Jackknife Resampling 51

Stepan Lucyszyn, 1997. “Power-added Efficiency Errors with RF Power Amplifiers” . International Journal of Electronics, 82 (3): 303-312.

Soumya Shatakshi Panda & P.Manikandan. 2012. An Efficient And Power Optimized Cascode Stage RF Tuned Class-E Power Amplifier. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 10 (1): 1-6.

Tichelaar, B. W., & Ruff, L. J. 1989. How Good Are Our Best Models? Jackknifing, Bootstrapping, and Earthquake Depth. Eos, 70 (20): 593-606.

Zainodin, H. J, Noraini, A., & Yap, S. J. 2011. An Alternative Multicollinearity Approach in Solving Multiple Regression Problem. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 6 (11): 1241-1255

GEO-ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY CHARACTERIZATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN DENT PENINSULAR, LAHAD DATU, SABAH

ABSTRACT. A vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey was conducted in Dent Peninsular, Lahad Datu Sabah. The main objectives of the study are to determine the geo-electrical characteristic curves of the sediments and to relate them to various rock formations and layer of aquifer potential. In this study, the schlumberger electrode configuration was adopted for the acquisition of VES data in the field. A total of 31 VES stations were occupied within Sebahat, Ganduman and Togopi Formation of the study area. Resistivity curve types identified ranges from simple H until HQ, QH, KA, AA and QQ curve types, reflecting facies or lithological variations in the area. Four typical geo-electrical resistivity curves obtained can be associated with different rock formations in the study area. Four pattern of resistivity curves were obtained for Sebahat Formation with no typical characteristic type of curves which include HQ, QQ, QH and H types. Two typical resistivity curves were observed for the Lower Ganduman Formation (HQ and QQ) and three typical curves characterized the Upper Ganduman Formation (H, HQ and KA). Similarly, three typical resistivity curves (HQ, AA and H) were obtained for Togopi Formation. Interpreted 2D geo-electrical resistivity section obtained for all the sedimentary rock formations were used to evaluate the potential aquifer in the study area. The results show that the thick sandstone layers found in the Lower Ganduman and Togopi Formation have potential to become good groundwater aquifers. In addition, there is also a possibility of variable thickness of sandstone layer in the Upper Ganduman Formation to become a possible unconfined aquifer.


KEYWORDS.
Vertical Electrical Sounding, groundwater, geo-electrical characterization, Schlumberger.

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REFERENCES

Abd. Manaf Ishak, Gamble, D. H. F., & Krishna Kumar. 1990. Dent Peninsular Water  Supply: Supply to Village D and The Industrial Complex. Groundwater & the Environment: Proceedings of The 2nd International Groundwater Conference, Kota Bharu. Hlm. B26-B36.

Hadi Tahmasbi Nejad. 2009. Geoelectrict Investigation of the Aquifer Characteristic and Groundwater Potential in Behbahan Azad University Farm, Khuzestan Province, Iran.Journal of Applied Science, 9 (20): 3691-3698.

Haile, N. S., & Wong, N. R. Y. 1965. The Geology and Mineral Resources of Dent Peninsula, Sabah. Geological Survey, Borneo Region, Malaysia. Memoir 16. Kuching, Sarawak: Vincent Kiew Fah San, Goverment Printer.

Hutchison, C. S. 2005. Geology of North-West Borneo: Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya.

Ismail Che Mat Zin. 1994. Dent Group and its Equivalent in the Offshore Kinabatangan Area, East Sabah. Bulletin Geology Society of Malaysia, 36: 127-143.

Koeffoed, O. 1979. Geosounding Principle: 1, Resistivity Sounding Measurements. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Loke, M. H. 2012. Tutorial 2D and 3D Electrical Imaging Surveys. Revision date 2012.

Geotomo Software, Malaysia. Retrieved from www.geotomosoft.com.

Mooney, H. M. 1980. Handbook of Engineering Geophysics,Volume 2: Electrical Resistivity. United State of America: Bison Instrument INC.

Oseji, J. O., Atakpo, E. A., & Okolie, E. C. 2005. Geoelectric Investigation of the Aquifer Characteristics and Groundwater Potential in Kwale, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of
Applied Science Environmental, 9 (1): 157 – 160.

Oseji, J.O., & Ujuanbi, O. 2009. Hydrogeophysical Investigation of Groundwater Potential in Emu kingdom, Ndokwa Land of Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 4 (5): 275-284.

Parasnis, D. S. 1962. Principles of Applied Geophysics. London: Chapman & Hall.

Sanudin Tahir, & Baba Musta. 2007. Pengenalan Kepada Stratigrafi. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: Penerbit UMS.

Sanudin Tahir., Shariff A. K. Omang, & Majeed M. F. 1995. Middle Miocene Volcanic Sequence in Eastern Sabah. Borneo Science, 1 (1): 9-27.

Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., Sheriff, R. E., & Keys, D. A. 1990. Applied Geophysics. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ASSESSMENT OF FRESH SEMEN QUALITY OF DOMESTICATED BANTENG (BOS JAVANICUS D’ALTON, 1823) IN SABAH, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT. Banteng cattle have been domesticated in several places in the Southeast Asia. A domesticated form of Banteng, called ‘Bali cattle’ considered to be the same species and occurs widely in Indonesia and has been introduced to other areas of the world. Banteng cattle were classified as endangered species by IUCN Red List. In the past few years an effort has been made by Department of Veterinary Services and Animal Industry (DVSAI) Sabah, Malaysia in Banteng research for conservation and breeding program purposes. Electroejaculation technique was applied on fifteen Banteng cattle for semen collection. Collected fresh semen then analyzed for semen volume, pH, sperm concentration and motility. The objective of this study was to determine the fresh semen quality of domesticated Banteng cattle reared in Sabah, Malaysia. Results in this study show the semen volume was between 2.2 to 11.5 ml (mean; 6.28±2.3 ml), pH 6.63 to 7.48 (mean;7.01±0.24), sperm concentration between 30 to 470 x 106 sperm/ml (mean; 266 x 106 sperm/ml) and sperm motility between 10 to 70% (mean; 56.08±16.72 %). We conclude that data generated in this study were useful and important hedge against the complete loss of threatened populations of Banteng cattle, in making the decision for conservation and breeding program where the sources were very limited.

KEYWORDS. Banteng, Bali cattle, semen quality

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REFERENCES

Al-Hakim, M. K., Ali, S. B. A., & Singh, B. P. 1984. Study on Semen Characteristics of Karadi (Kurdi) Bulls. Indian Journal of Animal Health, 23: 163-169.

Aghangari, Y. T. 1992. Cryopreservation of ram semen for AI. Thesis PhD, University of Wales.

Amann, R. P. 1989. Can the Fertility Potential of a Seminal Sample be Predicted Accurately? Journalof Andrology, 10: 89-98.

Andrews, L. G. 1972. The Major Non-infectious Causes of Reproductive Wastage in Beef Cattle in the Northern Territory. Australian Veterinary Journal, 48: 41-46.

Arifiantini, R. I., Wiresdiyati, T., & Retnani, E. F. 2006. Sperm Morphology Assessment of Bali Bull Cattle using “William” Stain. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, 31: 105-110.

Ballester, J., Johannisson, A., Saravia, F., Haard, M., Gustafsson, H., Bajramovic, D., & Rodriguez-Martinez, H. 2007. Post-thaw Viability of Bull AI-doses with Low-sperm Numbers. Theriogenology, 68: 934-943.

Barth, A. D. 2000. Bull Breeding Soundness Evaluation Manual. 2nd edition. The Western Canadian Association of Bovine Practitioners. Lacombe, Alberta, Canada.

Bearden, H. J., & Fuquay, J. W. 1997. Applied Animal Reproduction. 4th edition. New Jersey:

Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, USA.

Brito, L. F. C., Silva, A. D. E. F., Rodrigues, L. H., Vieira, F. V., Deragon, A. G., & Kastelic,

J. P. 2002. Effect of Environmental Factors, Age and Genotype on Sperm Production and Semen Quality of B. indicus and B. taurus AI bulls in Brazil. Theriogenology, 70: 181-190.

Copland, R. S. 1974. Observations on Banteng Cattle in Sabah. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 6: 89-94.

Dahmani, Y. 2012. Semen Evaluation Methods in Cattle. Magapor R&D Department. Retrieved 25 November 2012, from http://www.magapor.com/images/Veterinarios/iDoc_18.pdf

Darmadja, D. 1980. Half Century of Traditional Bali Cattle Farming in Baliness Agricultural Ecosystem. Thesis PhD. Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia.

Devendra, C. T., Choo, L. K., & Pathmasingan, M. 1973. The productivity of Bali cattle in Malaysia. Malaysian Agriculture Journal, 49: 183-197.

Falk, A. J., Waldner, C. L., Cotter, B. S., Gudmundson, J., & Barth, A. D. 2001. Effects of Epidural Lidocaine Anesthesia on Bulls during Electroejaculation. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 42: 116-120.

Fiaz, M., Usmani, R. H., Abdullah, M., & Ahmad, T. 2010. Evaluation of Semen Quality of Holstein Friesian and Jersey Bulls Maintained under Subtropical Environment. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 30: 75-78.

Gil, M. A., Roca, J., Cremades, T., Hernandez, M., Vazquez, J. M., Rodriguez-Martinez, H., & Martinez, E. A. 2005. Does Multivariate Analysis of Post-thaw Sperm Characteristics Accurately Estimate in Vitro Fertility of Boar Individual Ejaculates? Theriogenology, 64: 305-316.

Hafez, E. S. E. 1974. Reproduction in Farm Animals. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Lea and Fibiger, USA.

Hedges, S. 1996. Proposal for Inclusion of Banteng (Bos javanicus) in CITES Appendix I. IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group, IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Programme, Thai Government, Bangkok.

Huat, K. S. 1973. Semen Characteristics of Crossbred Goats. (Kambing Kajong Jamnapari). Kajian Veterinar (Malaysia Singapore), 7: 63-66.

Ismail, M. I., Jaffar, F. F., Zainalabidin, F. A., Mail, M. H., Hajarian, H., Ismail, Z., Karim, A. A. A., Jaffar, F. H. F., Nang, C. F., Hassan, N., Mohamad, S. F. S., Ibrahim, S. F., Osman, K., & Othman, A. M. 2010. Semen Analysis of Bali Cattle (Bos Javanicus) Bulls Ranched in Oil Palm Plantation in Malaysia. Reproductive Biotechnology, 7: 46.

Iswadi, M. I., Ann, Z. F., Hafiz, M. M., Hafiz, M. D., Fahrul, F. J., Hajarian, H., Wahid, H., Zawawi, I., Khairiah, M. S., & Mazni, O. A. 2012. Collection, Analysis and Cryopreservation of Semen from Malayan Gaur (Bos gaurus Hubbacki): A Preliminary Study. Open Veterinary Journal, 2: 109-114.

International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2012. IUCN Red List of threatened species. World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. Retrieved 25 November 2012, from http:// www.iucnredlist.org.

Januskauskas, A., Johannisson, A., & Rodriguez-Martinez, H. 2003. Subtle Membrane Changes in Cryopreserved Bull Semen in Relation with Sperm Viability, Chromatin Structure, and Field Fertility. Theriogenology, 60: 743-758.

Johari, J. A., & Jasmi, Y. 2009. Breeds and Breeding Program for Beef Production in Malaysia. Proceeding of the 8th Malaysia Congress on Genetics, 4-6 August 2009, Genting Highlands, Malaysia: 22-28.

Johnson, L. A., Weitze, K. F., Fiser, P., & Maxwell, W. M. 2000. Storage of Boar Semen. Animal Reproduction Science, 62: 143-172.

Kirby, G. W. M. 1972. Bantengs, a New Source of Genes. Turn Off, 4: 6-8.

Mamabolo, M. J. 1999. Dietary, Seasonally and Environmental Influences on Semen Quality and Fertility Status Indigenous Goats in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. M. Inst. Agrar. Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Martojo, H. 2002. A Simple Selection Program for Smallholder Bali Cattle Farmers. Proceeding of an ACIAR Workshop on Strategies to Improve Bali Cattle in Eastern Indonesia, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia: 43-47.

Mathevon, M., Bhyr, R. M., & Dekkers, J. C. 1998. Environmental, Management and Genetic Factors Affecting Semen Production in Holstein Bulls. Journal of Dairy Science, 81: 3321-3330.

McGowan, M. 2004. Approach to Conducting Bull Breeding Soundness Examinations. In Practice, 26: 485-491.

Parkinson, T. J. 2004. Evaluation of Fertility in Natural Service Bulls. Veterinary Journal, 168: 215-229.

Patel, B. R., & Siddiquee, G. M. 2013. Physical and Morphological Characteristics of Kankrej Bull Semen. Veterinary World, 6: 405-408.

Payne, W. J. A. 1970. Cattle Production in the Tropics, 1 vol.: Breeds and Breeding.

Tropical Agriculture Series, Longman Group Ltd., London: 336.

Purwantara, B., Noor, R. R., Andersson, G., & Rodriguez-Martinez, H. 2012. Banteng and Bali Cattle in Indonesia: Status and Forecasts. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47: 2-6. Roberts, S. J. 1986. Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases (Theriogenology), 3 rd Edition. Woodstock VT, USA: 622.

Sarder, M. J. U. 2007. Environment Related Variations in the Semen Characteristics of Bulls used for Artificial Insemination (AI) Programme In Bangladesh. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University, 26: 81-88.

Shaha, S. P., Alam, M. G. S., Khatun, M., & Ahmed, J. U. 2008. Breeding Soundness of Stud Bulls. The Bangladesh Veterinary Journal, 25: 51-61.

Sharma, M., Singh, M., Kapoor, S., & Jasial, S. 2012. Inter Relationship Between Some Routine Semen Evaluation Parameters in Jersey X Local Hill Cattle Crossbred Bulls. Open Veterinary Journal, 2: 26-31.

Mohd Iswadi Ismail, Fazly Ann Zainalabidin, Mohd Hafiz Mail, Siti Romaino Mohd Nor, Loo Shu San, Fahrul Firdaus Jaffar, Punimin Abdullah, Daud Yusof, Abd Wahid Haron, & Abas Mazni Othman 32

Talib, C., Entwistle, K., Sirega, A., Budiarti-Turner, S., & Lindsay, D. 2002. Survey of Population and Production Dynamics of Bali Cattle and Existing Breeding Programs in Indonesia. Proceeding of an ACIAR Workshop on Strategies to Improve Bali Cattle in Eastern Indonesia, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia: 3-9.

Toelihere, M. R. 2002. Increasing the Success Rate and Adoption of Artificial Insemination for Genetic Improvement of Bali Cattle. Proceeding of an ACIAR Workshop on Strategies to Improve Bali Cattle in Eastern Indonesia, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia: 48-53.

Van Denmark, N. L., & Free, M. J. 1970. Temperature Effect. In Johnson AD, Ggomes WR and Van Denmark NL. The Testis, volume 3. Academic Press, New York, USA: 233- 312.

Wells, M. E., Smith, S., Breuer, D. J., & Stotts, B. A. 1976. Ejaculate Characteristics of Angus and Hereford Bulls Finishing Test Gain. Research Report, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University: 134-136.

ANALYSIS OF VIBRATOR FOR SOMPOTON USING CANTILEVER BEAM MODEL

ABSTRACT. One of the famous heritages in Sabah is the traditional musical instrument called sompoton. This instrument has several parts with the vibrator being the most important of all. In this paper, the vibrator is modeled as a cantilever beam with uniformly distributed mass. Using this model, the fundamental frequency is analyzed using Rayleigh’s energy theory. The vibrator made from aluminum is fabricated at different dimensions and is excited using constant air jet to obtain its fundamental resonance frequency. The measured fundamental frequency is then compared with the theoretical values calculated based on cantilever beam model and Rayleigh’s energy theories. It was found that the experimental and theoretical results exhibit the same trend but differ in magnitude. To overcome this, a correction factor is added to the theoretical formulation to account for fabrication error.

KEYWORDS. Vibrator, cantilever beam, Rayleigh’s energy theory, resonance frequency, single degree of freedom system.

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REFERENCES

Bansal, R. K. 2010. A Text Book of Strength of Materials (4th ed). Daryaganj, New Delhi: Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

Erkut, C., Karjalainen, M., Huang, P., & Välimäki, V. 2002. Acoustical Analysis and Model Based Sound Synthesis of the Kantele. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 112(4): 1681-1691.

Gere, J. M., & Goodno, B. J. 2008. Mechanics of Materials (7th ed). Toronto, Kanada: Cengage Learning.

Hopkin, B. 1996. Musical Instrument Design: Practical Information for Instrument Design. Tucson, Arizona: See Sharp Press.

Ismail, A., Samad, S. A., Hussain, A., Azhari, C. H., & Zainal, M. R. M. 2006. Analysis of the Sound of the Kompang for Computer Music Synthesis. IEEE 4th Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD 2006). 27-28 June 2006, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Marasan, R. 2003. Alat Muzik Sompoton Negeri Sabah. Pejabat Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negeri Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia.

Merriman, M. 1924. Mechanics of Materials. John Wiley & Sons.

Ong, C. W., & Dayou, J. 2009. Frequency Characteristic of Sound from Sompoton Musical Instrument. Borneo Science, 25: 71-79.

Rujinirum, C., Phinyocheep, P., Prachyabrued, W., & Laemsak, N. 2005. Chemical Treatment of Wood for Musical Instruments. Part I: Acoustically Important Properties of Wood for the Ranad (Thai Traditional Xylophone). Wood Science and Technology, 39(1): 77-85.

Serway, R. A., & Jewett, J. W. 2006. Principles of Physics: A Calculus-Based Text, 4th Edition (Available 2010 Titles Enhanced Web Assign)., USA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

Someya, S., & Okamoto, K. 2007. Measurement of the Flow and Its Vibration in Japanese Traditional Bamboo Flute Using the Dynamic PIV. Journal of Visualization, 10(4): 397-404.

FLOW INSTABILITY OF DOPE SOLUTION IN HOLLOW FIBER SPINNING PROCESS FOR DIFFERENT FLOW CHANNEL LENGTH

ABSTRACT. The study demonstrated the effect of different flow channel length on the spinneret with respect to the ceramic hollow fiber membrane morphology. A smartly designed spinneret is utilized for the spinning process where the nozzle used can be change to different length via the use of adapters. Thus, allowing the effect of having different flow channel length to be investigated. Three spinneret adapters with different nozzle length were fabricated at 29 mm, 34 mm, and 39 mm. Ceramic hollow fiber membrane is produced using these configurations in the spinning process. Then, the micrographic cross sections of hollow fiber membranes is investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) where it shows finger like, dense layer and damage structure morphology. Out of the samples investigated, hollow fiber membrane spun using 39 mm nozzle length produce the best concentricity. CFD simulation is initiated to study the flow behavior inside the flow channel to correlate with that of the experimental result attained.

KEYWORDS. Hollow fiber, Spinneret, Flow Channel, CFD

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REFERENCES

Bird, R. B., Armstrong, R. C., & Hassager, O. 1987. Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Fluid Mechanics (Volume 1). Vol. 1, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons.

Bonyadi, S., & Chung, T. S. 2007. Investigation of Corrugation Phenomenon in the Inner Contour of Hollow Fibers during the Non-solvent Induced Phase-separation Process, Journal of Membrane Science, 299: 200.

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Volume 31 (Food Science Issue)

OPTIMIZATION OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF BLOOD COCKLE (Anadara granosa) USING ALCALASE®
Amiza, M. A. & Masitah, M.

SCREENING OF SEVEN TYPES TERENGGANU HERBS FOR THEIR POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SELECTED FOOD MICROORGANISMS
Mohd Adzim Khalili R., Norhayati A. H., Emynur Shafekh S., Mohamad Fazari G, Azlina M.,
Tajul Zahili, M., & Ahmad Zubaidi A. L.

CHANGES IN THE CONCENTRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES, ORGANIC ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS OF SOAKED PEANUTS WITH LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
1Manan, D. M. A., 2Nadiah, W. A. W., & 2Ng, Y. M.

BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS DETERMINATION IN FERMENTED LIQUID DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS)
Foong, J. H., Hon, W. M., & Ho, C. W.

PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF MICRO-ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM AN INDIGENOUS FISH SAUCE
1Kheng Yuen Sim, 2Fook Yee Chye, & 3Ann Anton

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL SEMI-SWEET BISCUIT
1Hasmadi Mamat, 1Mansoor Abdul Hamid, & 2Sandra E. Hill

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OSMO-DEHYDROFROZEN PINEAPPLES
Lee-Fong Siow & Kar-Hing Lee

PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF SELECTED EDIBLE SEAWEED FROM SEMPORNA, SABAH, MALAYSIA
1,2Fisal Ahmad, 1Mohd Rosni Sulaiman,
1Welzan Saimon, 1Chye Fook Yee, & 1Patricia Matanjun

SEED FAT FROM Madhuca longifolia AS RAW MATERIAL FOR HALAL ALTERNATIVE FATS
1,2Marikkar, J. M. N. & 1Yanty, N. A. M.

FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG THE STREET FOOD VENDORS IN NORTHERN KUCHING CITY, SARAWAK
Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd. Taha Arif, Kamaluddin Bakar, & Zainab bt Tambi

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND HEALTHY ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE DURING PREGNANCY
Mitra Mirsanjari1, Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda1,
Affizal Ahmad1, Mohd Shukri Othman2, Maryam Mosavat2 & Mir Mehrdad Mirsanjari3

EFFECTS OF RED PITAYA FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS) CONSUMPTION ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL AND
LIPID PROFILE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC SUBJECTS

¹Norhayati Abd Hadi, ¹Marhazlina Mohamad,
¹Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin & ²Rokiah Mohd Yusof

NUTRITIVE VALUE BETWEEN FERMENTED AND GERMINATED SOYBEAN:γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, AMINO ACIDS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES
¹Koh, S. P., 1Jamaluddin, A., 2Alitheen, 2Mohd-Ali, N. B., 2Mohd-Yusof, N., H., 3Yeap, S. K., & 1Long, K.

 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND HEALTHY ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE DURING PREGNANCY

ABSTRACT. In prenatal nutrition, intake of adequate and balanced diet is required for successful pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is an association between different levels of nutritional knowledge of pregnant women and healthy attitude and practice. This was a cross-sectional study among a group of normal pregnant Malay women who were selected based on systematic sampling during their routine antenatal follow up in the clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.A self-administered questionnaire of knowledge, attitude and practice of food and nutrition was used. The association of knowledge with healthy food practice and attitude was obtained with chi-square test. Findings of this study showed there was a significant association between level of nutritional knowledge and food practices on: frequency of snack (P= 0.003) and fast food consumption (P= 0.043), choice of healthy food for dinner (P = 0.005) and lunch (P= 0.016), frequency of eating chicken (P= 0.002), consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (P= 0.006), type of activity during free time (P<0.001), kind of drink (P= 0.038), attitude about significance of physical activity (P= 0.003) and most important items when buying foods (P= 0.006). On the other hand, there was no significant association between knowledge level of participants and their frequency and type of breakfast intake (P= 0.836), consumption of healthy snacks (P= 0.168), frequency of consumption of fish and sea foods, meat, egg, beans, vegetables, fruits, and milk. This study showed most pregnant women have moderate or good nutritional knowledge. But their knowledge needs to be improved in order to affect their practices more effectively.

KEYWORDS. Dietary habits, level of knowledge, pregnancy

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FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG THE STREET FOOD VENDORS IN NORTHERN KUCHING CITY, SARAWAK

ABSTRACT. Street food vending is a prevailing and distinctive part of a large informal sector in both developed and developing countries. Food safety is a key public health concern, because a large number of people take their meals outside the home and are exposed to food borne illnesses. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of storage, processing production, preparation and retailing. The objective of the study is to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of food safety among the food vendors in Kuching City, Sarawak and to determine the factors affecting them. A cross sectional study was conducted among the street vendors in Kuching City. A total of 361 street food vendors were selected using non-probability sampling technique. Data were collected by face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. All completed questionnaires were validated manually and data analysis carried out by computer using SPSS version 19.0 software package. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that age and ethnicity appeared to be important factors for food safety knowledge (p<0.05), whereas food safety knowledge and training appeared to be influencing factors for attitude (p<0.05). On the other hand, food safety knowledge, attitude, training and age of the food vendors influence the food safety practice, but duration of food vending had an inverse relationship with food safety practice (0<0.05). Findings of this study may help in planning health intervention programs for food handlers for their improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice towards food-borne diseases and food safety. Furthermore, this will in turn reduce the morbidity and mortality of food-borne diseases.

KEYWORDS. Attitude, food safety, knowledge, practice, Sarawak

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SEED FAT FROM Madhuca longifolia AS RAW MATERIAL FOR HALAL ALTERNATIVE FATS

ABSTRACT. Fat extracted from pork is prohibited under halal and kosher food regulations. A study was carried out on Madhuca longifolia seed fat and oil to compare their solidification and melting characteristics to formulate halal alternative lipid substitutes. Initially, a direct comparison of pork fat and Madhuca longifolia seed fat was done with respect to fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions using chromatographic techniques and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pulse NMR spectroscopy. By subjecting these two fats to fractional crystallization under controlled temperature in acetone, their solid and liquid components were isolated separately. The thermal properties of the solid and liquid components from pork fat were also compared to those of lipid derivatives from Madhuca longifolia seed fat using DSC and NMR techniques. As the analytical data obtained from DSC and pulse NMR techniques showed that the thermal properties of these two fats and their components were compatible, Madhuca longifolia seed fat could be a useful raw material for formulation as halal alternative fats.

KEYWORDS. Animal fats, halal alternatives, lard, Madhuca longifolia, seed fats

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PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF SELECTED EDIBLE SEAWEED FROM SEMPORNA, SABAH, MALAYSIA

 

ABSTRACT. In this study proximate compositions and total phenolic contents in extracts of 15 seaweeds from Semporna, Sabah, were determined. In general, results of proximate analysis for all seaweeds showed that moisture content (75.95-96.03%) was the most abundant in seaweed, followed by carbohydrate (26.86 – 74.10% dry weight basis), crude fiber (4.03 – 34.71% dry weight), and ash (6.05 – 45.04% dry weight), crude protein (5.22 – 17.28% dry weight), and crude fat content (0.15 – 0.84% dry weight). The total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method based on the standard calibration curve of phloroglucinol measured at 740 nm using UV-Visible Spectrometer (Perkin Elmer). Overall, the total phenolic contents for all seaweeds of methanolic extract were between 9.40 – 51.87 mg/g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE) of dried sample. The results of the present study showed significant differences (p<0.05) in proximate compositions and total phenolic contents among several species of red, green and brown seaweeds. The findings on total phenolic contents and proximate compositions of the seaweeds in this study can be further used as a basis for more advance research on seaweed antioxidant capability and nutritional information guideline, respectively.

KEYWORDS. Edible seaweed, proximate compositions, total phenolic contents

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DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OSMO-DEHYDROFROZEN PINEAPPLES

ABSTRACT. The effect of osmotic pretreatment using 50 %(w/v) sucrose, trehaloseormaltitol syrups on the physicochemical properties of frozen pineapple pieces (Josapine variety) of ~6.7 cm in external diameter (without core) and ~0.9 cm in thickness was investigated. Maltitol-treated pineapple pieces had a higher water loss than those treated with sucrose and trehalose (p ≤ 0.05). All three syrups resulted in similar solid gain. Prior to freezing, pineapple pieces were subjected to osmotic pretreatment for 1 hour. This was followed by cooling the pineapple pieces at either slow (0.25ºC/min) or fast (6.13°C/min) cooling rates to -20°C with an untreated sample used as a control. Physicochemical properties including drip loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and colour of samples stored at -20°C for 0, 3, 10, 14, 17 and 24 days were determined. Untreated pineapple pieces exhibited a smaller change in firmness at fast cooling rate compared to slow cooling rate. At fast cooling rate, a higher drip loss was observed for thawed pineapple pieces compared to slow cooling rate. In the presence of maltitol and trehalose, a small change in firmness and higher drip loss was found at slow cooling compared to fast cooling. In the presence of sucrose, there was no significant change in drip loss at both slow and fast cooling rates. Fast cooling in the presence of sucrose, maltitol or trehalose had no effect on firmness of osmo-dehydrofrozen pineapple pieces. Frozen storage of 24 days did not affect the physiochemical properties of osmo-dehydrofrozen pineapples.

KEYWORDS. Ananascomosus, cooling rate, maltitol, sucrose, trehalose

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MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL SEMI-SWEET BISCUIT

 

ABSTRACT. Total fat contents, fatty acid composition and percentages of saturated (SFA), mono-unsaturated (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid were analyzed in ten commercial semi sweet (rich tea type) biscuits using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total fat content determined was slightly different with the fat content declared by the manufacturer. Major fatty acids present were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Stearic and myristic fatty acids were also detected but with lower proportion (below 1.5 %). The results obtained show a great variance in the percentages of fatty acids (g/100 g total fatty acids).   From the different brands of semi-sweet biscuit, four of the samples contained a high proportion of saturated fatty acids and six samples contained a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid.

 

KEYWORDS. Rich tea biscuit, fatty acid composition, fat extraction, GC/MS, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid.

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PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF MICRO-ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM AN INDIGENOUS FISH SAUCE

ABSTRACT. This study assessed the potential of probiotic and antimicrobial activity of strains isolated from an indigenous fish sauce in Malaysia. A total of 150 isolates were evaluated for their resistance toward low pH and bile salts as well as the production of inhibitory substances against four selected foodborne pathogens namely Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lactobacillus plantarum (LP1, LP2), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC3), Candida glabrata (CG2), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL2) and Staphylococcus arlettae (SA) strains showed resistance to low pH and bile salt at various concentrations. The LP1(86.3%), LP2 (86.2%), LL2 (84.4%) and CG2 (79.7%) strains exhibited higher survival rates than SA (66.7%) strain at extremely low pH concentration (pH 1.5) compared to other tested strains; while most of the strains tolerate bile salt at low concentrations (0.3%) which mimic the human small intestine environment. The growth rate of the tested strains decreased in proportion to the increase of bile salt concentrations. All the strains elicited different levels of antimicrobial activities against selected pathogens. Only the LP1, SC3 and SA strains showed greater inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The result suggested that LP1, LP2, SC3, CG2, LL2 and SA were technologically interesting and could be developed as starter cultures for the manufacturing of novel functional fermented foods.

 

KEYWORDS. Fish sauce, probiotic, bile salt tolerance, antimicrobial activity, starter cultures

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BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS DETERMINATION IN FERMENTED LIQUID DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS)

Foong, J. H., Hon, W. M., & Ho, C. W.

Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University,
No. 1, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI Heights, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Bioactive compounds have been intensively studied due to their beneficial effects on high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This study focused on the bioactive compounds (fatty acids, phytosterols, betacyanins and acetic acid) and other aspects (physical, microbiological, chemical and nutritional properties) of fermented liquid dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) without pasteurization sample A (SA) and with pasteurization sample B (SB). Overall, SB exhibited significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of phytosterols, betacyanins, acetic acids, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total flavanol assay (TFA) as compared to SA, except fatty acids; this suggested that heat treatment (75oC for 15 s) may have exerted a favourable effect on the concentration of these bioactive compounds. Also, SB showed greater (p<0.05) radical scavenging capacity in 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay than SA. No microorganisms were detected in SA or SB which was possibly due to restricting internal factor such as low pH (3.94-4.00), high ethanol concentration (7.31-8.92%) and the presence of organic acids. In conclusion, the overall results suggested both SA and SB were microbiologically safe for consumption however heat pasteurization may exert a beneficial effect on concentrations of bioactive compounds.

KEYWORDS. Bioactive compounds, dragon fruit, cholesterol, pasteurization, fermentation

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CHANGES IN THE CONCENTRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES, ORGANIC ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS OF SOAKED PEANUTS WITH LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

*1Manan, D. M. A., 2Nadiah, W. A. W., & 2Ng, Y. M.

1Universiti Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology,
Taboh Naning, Kawasan Perindustrian Bandar Vendor, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia.
2Food Technology Division,
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACTS. Peanuts were soaked for 24 hours in water at 30°C in preparation for sauce production. Soaking was conducted under conditions that cause normal microbial fermentation and in the presence of Pediococcus halophilus. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in carbohydrate, organic acid and amino acid concentrations during short period soaking under normal fermentation and with inoculated lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus halophilus. Changes in the concentration of carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids of the soaked peanuts were determined. The principal sugar present in the peanut was sucrose, 46.33 mg g-1 peanut (DM). Sucrose concentration dropped during soaking although at a slower rate in the inoculated peanut. Acetic, lactic, citric and oxalic acids were detected. Acetic acid was the main organic acid in the uninoculated peanut whereas acetic and lactic acids were prominent in the inoculated peanut. Higher concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine were found in the inoculated beans after 24 hours soaking although soaking for18 hours was found to yield an optimum amino acid concentration. The presence of organic acids and principle amino acids produced during controlled fermentation contributed to the flavour enhancing effect.

KEYWORDS. Peanut sauce, lactic acid bacteria, amino acid production, organic acid production

REFERENCES:

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SCREENING OF SEVEN TYPES TERENGGANU HERBS FOR THEIR POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SELECTED FOOD MICROORGANISMS

 

*Mohd Adzim Khalili R., Norhayati A. H., Emynur Shafekh S., Mohamad Fazari G, Azlina M.,
Tajul Zahili, M., & Ahmad Zubaidi A. L.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA),
Kampus Kota, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Recently more attention has been directed toward plant extracts and biologically active compounds isolated from popular plant species. Seven types of selected herbs available in Terengganu known as Nilam (Pogostemon cablin), Kuda Belang (Aphelandra squarrosa), Buah Keras (Adhatoda vasica), Sesudu (Euphorbia nerrifola), Lelipan (Pedilanthus tithymaloides), Gelenggang (Casia alata) and Ekor Kucing (Uraria picta) was determined based on the widely used by local Terengganu people as traditional herbal remedies. Methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from these seven herbs were screened for their potential antibacterial activity against food microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia). The methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fraction extracts from Pogostemon cablin, Aphelandra squarrosa, Adhatoda vasica, Euphorbia neriifola, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Casia alata and Uraria picta were exhibited significant antibacterial activity with a range of minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 to 6.25 µg/mL.

KEYWORDS. Herbs plant, antibacterial activity, fractionate extraction, food microorganisms

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