Jualang A. G.*, Adznila E., How S. E.

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding e-mail:

ABSTRACT. This study aims to investigate potential of vegetables from Sabah with valueadded benefits in nutraceuticals. Fifty-five samples of vegetables were collected from local market and tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH• assay. Four species with high DPPH• scavenging activity (>80%) which are Cosmos caudatus, Eryngium foetidum, Ipomoea batatas and Manihot esculenta Crantz were selected and subjected to different solvents extraction and tested to different scavenging assays (DPPH•, O2• and NO•), protein kinasephosphatase assay (GSK-3β, MKK1, and MSG5) and antibacterial tests. Ethanol extract of I. batatas (90.56%), boiled water extract of M. esculenta Crantz (62.77%) and extractable polyphenol extract of E. foetidum (50.93%) exhibits comparable scavenging activities to catechin for DPPH•, O2• and NO•, respectively. Polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and proanthocynidins are detected in all extracts at concentration between 0.001 mg/g to 0.52 mg/g. The highest total polyphenols content (0.40±0.01 mg GAE/g), total phenolics content (0.52±0.01 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids content (0.13±0.01 mg CE/g) and total proanthocyanidins content (0.12±0 mg CE/g) were obtained in extractable polyphenols of Cosmos caudatus. No extracts were observed as inhibitor for GSK-3β, MKK1 and MSG5. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.0 mm to 12.3 mm) was only obtained in extractable polyphenols and ethanol extracts. Extractable polyphenols of E. foetidum exhibit the largest inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.3 mm).

KEYWORDS. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Antikinases, Antiphosphatases, Cosmos caudatus, Eryngium foetidum, Ipomoea batatas, Manihot esculenta



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*1,2Ogwu, M. C., 1Osawaru, M. E. and 1Atsenokhai, E. I.

1Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of
Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Keimyung University, Center for International Education and Development, 1095
Dalgubeol – Daero, Daegu, South Korea
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT. Fruits and nuts are essential components of animal and human diets and desert. They represent diverse genetic resources in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Nigeria, exotic fruits are more popular as indigenous ones are largely underutilized. This study examined the chemical components of five uncommon fruits: African oil bean [Pentaclathra macrophylla, Fabaceae], Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranean, Fabaceae], African bush mango [Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingiaceae], African pear [Dacryodes edulis, Burseraceae] and Nigerian walnut [Tetracarpidium conophorum, Euphorbiaceae]. The fresh fruits/nuts were collected from parts of Edo State, Southern Nigeria. Results showed that alkaloid was present in fresh and cooked samples of walnut and pear, and only present in fresh samples of P. macrophylla and V. subterranean. Alkaloid was absent in both fresh and cooked I. gaborensis. The result of mineral composition of the samples suggests highest calcium, potassium and magnesium content was obtained in African pear and P. macrophylla for sodium, zinc and iron. Presence of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and lactic acid was confirmed in all the fruits. The highest concentration of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and lactic acid was obtained from I. gaborensis, V. subterranean, P. macrophylla and D. edulis respectively. The highest bacterial and fungal count in fresh samples was from Bambara groundnut and P. macrophylla respectively. This study has
implicated the relevance of these uncommon fruits and nuts. It is recommended therefore that their awareness should be improved in order to sustain their marketability and food use.

KEYWORDS. Tropical fruits and nuts, Underutilized fruits, Plant genetic resources, Vegetables, Phytochemicals, Nigeria


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Growth and Yield Analysis of Sungkai (Peronema canescens Jack.) in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Wahyudi 1, A. R Mojiol 2, Z. Muttaqin 3

1Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University, Palangka Raya,
Indonesia (
2Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University of Malaysia,
Sabah, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Forestry, Nusa Bangsa University, Bogor, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT. Sungkai (Peronema canescens) is a local commercial tree (native species) that has the potential to be developed as a plantation forest and agroforestry estate. This study aims to determine the percentage of survivality, productivity, optimum cutting cycle, and financial benefits of the Sungkai tree. The study was conducted in the people plantation, Kapuas district, Central Kalimantan Province. The research took the growth parameter of Sungkai which was grown since the year 2001 to 2013 in areas with the ultisol soil type. Data analysis has been using the average value of diameter, height and volume, annual increment (annual), the regression equation of NPV, BCR and IRR. The results showed that in 12 years the percentage of Sungkai survivality reached 89.7%, with an annual increase of 14.10 m3 ha-1 year-1 and a density of 997 trees ha-1. The Equation modelling of Sungkai plantation is y = 2.073 + 1.6623x – 0.0165×2 (R2 = 84.05%). At the level of loan interest of 9% per year, Sungkai have an economic harvest cycle of 15 years with NPV Rp. 58.49 million ha-1, BCR: 7.64 and IRR: 11.75%. Whereas, when the loan interest rate of 6% and 12% per annum, then the cutting cycle of 15 years, the NPV are to Rp. 92.65 million ha-1 and Rp. 36.6 million ha-1 respectively. In this study, Sungkai tree are very suitable to be developed in agroforestry and to increase the productivity of land such as shifting cultivation area, scrubland and low potential forest areas which were widespread, especially in Kalimantan, Borneo.


KEYWORDS. Sungkai, Growth and yield, mean annual increment, Peronema canescens, and economic cutting cycle, Kalimantan


  • [Balitbanghut] Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan. 2008. Profil Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. Balitbanghut, Departemen Kehutanan, Bogor. pp 103 -120.
  • Brown S. 1997. Estimating biomass change of tropical forest a primer. FAO Forestry Paper No.134. FAO USA. pp 221 -224.
  • Burkhart, H. E. (2003). Suggestions for choosing an appropriate level for modelling forest stands. Modelling Forest Systems. CAB International, Wallingford, 3-10.
  • [Dephut] Departemen Kehutanan RI, 1989. Atlas Kayu Indonesia. Jilid I dan II. Badan Litbang Dephut, Bogor. 110 – 120.
  • [Ditjenhut] Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan. 1980. Pedoman Pembuatan Tanaman. Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan, Departemen Pertanian, Jakarta. pp 155 – 157.
  • [Ditjen BUK] Direktorat Jenderal Bina Usaha Kehutanan, 2010. Kebijakan dan Strategi Pengelolaan Hutan Produksi. Ditjen BUK Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta. pp 35 – 42.
  • Gray C, Kadariah L, Karlina 1999. Pengantar Evaluasi Proyek. Edisi Revisi. Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. pp 10-15.
  • Hani’in O. 1999. Pemuliaan pohon hutan Indonesia menghadapi tantangan abad 21. Dalam Hardiyanto EB, editor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Status Silvikultur 1999. Peluang dan Tantangan Menuju Produktifitas dan Kelestarian Sumberdaya Hutan Jangka Panjang. Wanagama I. Fakultas Kehutanan UGM, Yogyakarta.
  • Nair P. K. R. 1993. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ICRAF. Dordrecht-Boston-London. pp 23-30.
  • Wahyudi, A. R Mojiol, Z. Muttaqin Suratmo F. G, Husaeni EA, Jaya NS. 2003. Pengetahuan Dasar Pengendalian Kebakaran Hutan. Fakultas Kehutanan IPB, Bogor. pp 42-43.
  • Sutisna, M. dan Ruchaemi, 1995. Hutan Tanaman di Kalimantan Timur. Direktorat Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan, Dephut RI, Jakarta. pp 28 – 33.

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Volume 36, Issue 2 (Full Volume)



Autonomous Tawaf Crowd Simulation
Ahmad Zakwan Azizul Fata, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Sarudin Kari (p.1)

Fuzzy Soft Shadow in Augmented Reality System
- Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail & Mahyar Kolivand (p.8)
Primitives Penetration Depth Computation using Dynamic Pivot Point Technique
Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman & Abdullah Bade (p.19)
Hybrid Federated Data Warehouse Integration Model: Implementation in Mud Crabs Case Study
- Mustafa Man, W. Aezwani W.A. Bakar, Noraida Hj. Ali & Masita Abd. Jalil (p.28)

Part-Body Detection Framework for People Detection using Sliced HOG Descriptors
- Ahmad Sani, Mohd Daud Kasmuni, Mahardhika Candra Prasetyahadi, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim & Mohd Shahrizal Sunar (p.39)


Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

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Ahmad Zakwan Azizul Fata, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Sarudin Kari

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innonovation Centre of Excellence
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Johor, Malaysia,,

ABSTRACT. One of the most famous approaches to simulate a large density crowd is by applying the social force model. This model can be successfully used to simulate agents’ movement in real-world scenarios realistically. Nevertheless, this is very simple and not suitable to simulate a complex pedestrian flow movement. Hence, this research proposes a new novel model for simulating the pilgrims’ movements circling the Kaabah (Tawaf). These rituals are complex yet unique, due to its capacity, density, and various demographics backgrounds of the agents (pilgrims). It also had a certain set of rules and regulations that must be followed by the agents. Due to these rules, the Tawafcan introduce irregularities in the motion flow around the Kaabah. In order to make the simulation realistically, each agent will be assigned with different attributes such as; age, gender and intention outlook. The three parameters mentioned above, are the main problems that need to be solved in this research in order to simulate a better crowd simulation than previous studies. The findings of this research will contribute greatly for Hajj management in term of controlling and optimizing the flow of pilgrims during Tawaf especially in the Hajj season.

KEYWORDS. Autonomous Agents; Crowd Simulation; Hajj.



  • Curtis S., Zafar B., Guy S. J. & Manocha D. 2011. Virtual Tawaf: A Case Study in Simulating the Behavior of Dense, Heterogeneous Crowds. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops) 2011.
  • Hughes, R., Ondrej, J. & Dingliana, J. 2014. Holonomic Collision Avoidance for Virtual Crowds. Proceedings of the Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation 2014, pp. 1–8.
  • Sarmady S., Haron F. & Talib A. Z. 2011. A cellular automata model for circular movements of pedestrians during Tawaf. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. Elsevier.
  • Zainuddin Z., Thinakaran K. & Abu-Sulyman I. M. 2010. Simulating the Circumambulation of the Ka’aba using SimWalk. European Journal of Scientific Research, 38(3): 454-464.

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Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail, Mahyar Kolivand

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innovation Centre of Excellence)
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Realistic soft shadows in Augmented Reality (AR) is a fascinating topic in computer graphics. Many researchers are involved to have a significant improvement on this demand. In this paper, we have presented a new technique to produce soft shadows using one of the well-known methods in mathematics called Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic is taken into account to generate the realistic soft shadows in AR. The wide light source is split into some parts that each of them plays the rule of a single light source. The desired soft shadow is generated by splitting the wide light source into multiple parts and considering each part as a single light source. The method which we called Fuzzy Soft Shadow is employed in AR to enhance the quality of semi-soft shadows and soft shadows.

KEYWORDS. Soft Shadows, Augmented Reality, Fuzzy logic



  • Aittala, M. 2010. Inverse lighting and photorealistic rendering for augmented reality. The Visual Computer, 26(6-8):669–678.
  • Annen, T., Dong, A., Mertens, T., Bekaert, P., Seidel, H-P. & Kautz, J. 2008. Real-time, allfrequency shadows in dynamic scenes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2008), 27(3):1–34.
  • Boulanger, K. 2008. Real-time realistic rendering of nature scenes with dynamic lighting. Ph.D Thesis, University of Central Florida.
  • Crown. F. 1977. Shadow algorithms for computer graphics. Computer Graphics, 11(2):242–247.
  • Debevec, P. 2004. Image-based lighting. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 22:26–34.
  • Haller, M., Drab, S. & Hartmann, W. 2003. A real-time shadow approach for an augmented reality application using shadow volumes. In Proceedings of VRST 2003, pp. 56–65.
  • Hensley, J., Scheuermann, T., Coombe, G., Singh, M. & Lastra, A. 2005. Fast summed-area table generation and its applications. Comput. Graph. Forum, 24(3):547–555.
  • Jacobs, K. & Loscos, C. 2004. Classification of illumination methods for mixed reality. In Eurographics, State-of-the-Art Report.
  • Jacobs, K., Nahmias, J-D., Angus, C., Reche, A., Loscos, C. & Steed, A.2005. Automatic generation of consistent shadows for augmented reality. Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2005, pp. 113–120, 2005.
  • Jensen, B. F., Laursen, J. S., Madsen, J. B. & Pedersen, T. W. 2009. Simplifying real time light source tracking and credible shadow generation for augmented reality. Institute for Media Technology, Aalborg University.
  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. 2013a. A survey of shadow volume algorithms in computer graphics. IETE Technical Review, 30(1):38-46.
  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. 2013b. Covering photometric properties of outdoor components with the effects of sky color in mixed reality. Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp.1–20.
  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. S. 2014. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality. PLoS ONE, 9(9): e108334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108334
  • Madsen, C. B. & Lal, B. B. 2013. Estimating outdoor illumination conditions based on detection of dynamic shadows. Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics. Theory and Applications, Springer.
  • Madsen, C. B. & Nielsen, M. 2008. Towards probe-less augmented reality. A Position Paper, Computer Vision and Media Technology Lab. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
  • Nowrouzezahrai, D., Geiger, S., Mitchell, K., Sumner, R., Jarosz, W. & Gross, M. 2011. Light factorization for mixed-frequency shadows in augmented reality. 10th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), pp. 173–179.
  • Ro ̈nnberg, S. 2004. Real-time rendering of natural illumination. Citeseer.
  • Williams, L. 1978. Casting curved shadows on curved surfaces. SIGGRAPH ’78, 12(3): 270- 274 1978.
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  • Yan, F. 2008. Estimation of light source environment for illumination consistency of augmented reality. In First International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, 3:771–775.
  • Zadeh, L. A. 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and control, 8(3):338–353.


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Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman1*, Abdullah Bade2

1Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Computing penetration depth between two or more polygons commonly described by most researchers as one of the high computational cost process. Major implementation required numbers of pre-processing function just to find the minimum penetrating depth between those penetrated objects or polygons. In this paper, we proposed a technique that manipulates the advantages of Dynamic Pivot Point into computing penetration depth between two or more objects. Comparing our proposed technique (DyOP-PD) with the well-known Lin-Canny technique, the conducted experiments proved that our proposed technique has achieved better efficiency. Overall time for DyOP-PD technique to compute penetration depth was significantly faster than the Lin-Canny PD technique (refer Figure 6.9). Our technique was faster than the prominent technique where the computational time significantly reduced, solved a larger fraction of problems, and produced better paths of penetration depth. The lowest results recorded from our simulation was in average at 10.22 milliseconds for DyOP PD and 21.33 milliseconds for Lin-Canny PD technique. The findings proved that DyOP-PD technique is robust to handle efficient, nearly accurate, and fast penetration depth detection compared to Lin-Canny-PD technique.

KEYWORDS. Collision detection, penetration depth, virtual environment



  • Bergen, G. V D. 2001. Proximity Queries and Penetration Depth Computation on 3D Game Objects, in Game Developers Conference.
  • Kim,Y. J., Otaduy, M. A., M. C. Lin & D. Manocha. 2003. Fast Penetration Depth Estimation Using Rasterization Hardware And Hierarchical Refinement. Presented at the Proceedings of The Nineteenth Annual Symposium On Computational Geometry, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Redon, S., Kheddar, A. & Coquillart. S., 2002. Fast Continuous Collision Detection between Rigid Bodies. Computer Graphics Forum, 21: 279-287.
  • Shengzheng, W. & Jie, Y. 2009. Efficient Collision Detection for Soft Tissue Simulation In A Surgical Planning System. Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics, 2009. CAD/Graphics ’09. 11th IEEE International Conference on, 49-53.
  • Stephane, R. & Lin, M. C. 2006. A Fast Method for Local Penetration Depth Computation. Journal of Graphics Tools.
  • Sulaiman, H. A., Othman, M. A., Ismail, M. M, Misran, M. H., Said, M. A., B. M., Ramlee, R. A. 2013. Quad Separation Algorithm for Bounding-Volume Hierarchies Construction In Virtual
  • Environment Application. Journal of Next Generation Information Technology, 4: 63-73
  • Zhang, L., Kim Y. J., Varadhan, G. & Manocha, D. 2007. Generalized Penetration Depth Computation. Computer-Aided Design, 39(8): 625-638.
  • Zhang, X., Kim, Y. J. & Manocha, D. 2014. Continuous Penetration Depth. Computer-Aided Design, 46: 3-13

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Mustafa Man, W. Aezwani W.A. Bakar, Noraida Hj. Ali and Masita Abd. Jalil

Department of Computer Science
School of Informatics and Applied Mathematics
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.,,,

ABSTRACT. Data integration is considered as one of the hot issues to be solved especially in integrating unstructured data with multiple types and formats. This paper introduces a new model for integrating multiple types of heterogeneous data applying to mud crabs case study in Setiu Wetland (SW). The Hybrid Federated Data Warehouse (HyFeDWare) model combines two approaches which are Data Warehouse and Federated Database. Simulation result shows that the processing time for integration of unstructured biodiversity data of mud crabs are lesser than 2 seconds for 12 rows of 7 MB data. This model generally could be used to integrate any types and format of data in distributed environment.

KEYWORDS. Data Integration, Data Warehouse, Federated database, Distributed Environment.



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Ahmad Sani, Mohd Daud Kasmuni, Mahardhika Candra Prasetyahadi, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim and Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Faculty of Computing
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai, Johor-Malaysia

ABSTRACT. We investigate the possibility for using portions of Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptors in a part- based people detection framework. Instead of extracting descriptors from isolated or pre-cropped human parts, we slice the extracted HOG descriptor from whole windows into four, one slice per one human part. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used for classifying the slices and the outcome detections are handled by a finite-state machine where three detected parts means that one assumed person is in the window being scanned. Experiments were conducted for our detection framework and another conventional one that uses whole HOG descriptors using images from the INRIA Person Dataset, in which our framework achieved better; detecting 46/50 of occluded people comparing to 36/50 for the conventional framework. Moreover, we achieved less false positive detections of 80 windows comparing to 289 for the conventional framework.

KEYWORDS. People detection; object detection; histograms of oriented gradients; partbased detection framework



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    multiscale, deformable part model,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Anchorage, AKpp. 1 -8.
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Volume 36, Issue 1 (Full Volume)


Assesment of Toxicity Level in Selected Heavy Metal in Volcanic Soils from Tawau, Sabah
– Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta (p.1)

Geomechanical Classification Scheme for Heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
– Ismail Abd Rahim (p.12)

Morphologies Changes during Pre- and Post- Southwest Season in Mantanani Besar Island, Kota Belud, Sabah
– Russsel Felix Koiting, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap (p. 21)

The Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae) From Bawakareng Mountain, South Sulawesi
– Ellena Yusti, Ibnu Maryanto & Bambang Suryobroto (p.33)

Classification and Quantification of Marine Debris at Teluk Likas, Sabah
– Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan, Rudy Kilip, Dazvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus (p.44)

Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

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If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.


Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin*, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta

Faculty of Science & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*E-mail address:

ABSTRACT. Heavy metals are one of the serious pollutants in environment because its toxicity. Severe concentration of heavy metals can harm the plants, animals and even human. During the pedogenesis process, heavy metals from the parent rock are mobilized in soils and redistribute in to the environment. The objective of this paper is to study the concentration and toxicity level of selected heavy metals in volcanic soils around Tawau, Sabah. In this study 10 soil samples were collected from different sampling stations. The selection of soil
samples were based on the different type of volcanic rocks in the study area. The determination of concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were carried out using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The result shows, the highest concentration is chromium with the average of 141 ppm followed by zinc with 112 ppm. The concentration of copper is 49 ppm, nickel 15 ppm, lead 8 ppm and arsenic 7 ppm. The soil samples is identified as polluted due to the elevated concentration of certain heavy metals when compared with the Sediment Quality Guidelines of US EPA. Chromium is regarded as heavily polluted agent while zinc, copper and arsenic indicated that the area is moderately polluted. Nickel and lead average concentration show no indication of pollution in the area. It is concluded that the combined source of heavy metals in the study area would be the parent materials of the soils and other anthropogenic effluent. From the study also, it is found out that pH value, organic matter and clay percentage has influenced the heavy metal concentration in volcanic soil in the study area.

KEYWORDS.  Heavy Metals, Tawau, Volcanic Soils, XRF.



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  • Matera, V., Le Hécho, I., Laboudigue, A., Thomas, P., Tellier, S. & Astruc, M. 2003. A Methodological Approach for The Identification of Arsenic Bearing Phases in Polluted Soils. Environmental Pollution 126 (2003) 51-64.
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  • Prego, R. & Cobelo-Garcia, A. 2003. Twientieth Century Overview of Heavy Metals in The Galician Rias (NW Iberian Peninsular). Environmental Pollution, 121:425-425.
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  • Saria, L., Takayuki, S. & Kentaro, M. 2006. Leaching of Heavy Metals in Acid Mine Drainage. Waste Management & Research, Vol. 24 No.2 134-140.
  • Sanudin, T. & Baba, M. 2007. Pengenalan Kepada Stratigrafi. Penerbit UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
  • Schlotz, R. & Uhlig, S. 2006. Introduction to X-ray Flourescence Analysis (XRF). Bruker AXS GmbH, Karlruhe, West Germany.
  • Shan, W., Xinghui X., Chunye L., Xi, C. & Chuanhui, Z. 2010. Levels of Arsenic and Heavy Metals in The Rural Soils of Beijing and Their Changes Ove The Last Two Decades (1985-2008). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179:860-868.
  • Sipos, P. 2004. Factors Affecting Heavy Metal Distribution in Forest Soils: Inherited Pedogenic Characteristics. Eurosoil 2004. Alvert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg.

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Ismail Abd Rahim
Natural Disasters Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti
Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Phone: 088 320000 (5734/5999)
Fax: 088 435324

. Geomechanical classification scheme for heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has been proposed in 2009 and known as Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR). M-SMR was used to characterize and to propose preliminary rock cut slope design such as slope stabilization and protection measures and recommendation levels for design model review and slope remapping by suitable engineering geologist or geotechnical
engineers. The ‘Lithological unit thickness’ approach, RQD method, weighted average of discontinuity set spacing, weighted average, statistical mode and new approach of adjustment factor (NAAF) methods were used to evaluate the parameters in M-SMR. The classes in MSMR scheme consists of class I (very good) to class VI (extremely bad). Local trimming, slope re-profiling, weep hole, horizontal drainage, concrete dentition or buttress, rock bolting or dowel, wire mesh or rope nets, reinforce shotcrete and benching are proposed slope stabilization and protection measures. Normal to detailed Design Model Review (DMR) and slope remapping are recommended to highly recommended by engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers to expert engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers for class I to class VI, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Geomechanical classification, Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR), Crocker Formation, Kota Kinabalu, slope design.


  • Anbalagan, R., Sharma, S. & Tarun, R. 1992. Rock mass stability evaluation using modified SMR approach. Proceeding of the Sixth National Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Bangalore, India, pp. 258-268.
  • Bieniawski, Z. T. 1989. Engineering Rock Mass Classifications. Wiley, New York, 248 p.
  • Harrison, J. P. & Hudson, J. A. 2000. Engineering Rock Mechanics: Illustrative worked examples. Elsevier Science, Oxford, 530 pp.
  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Baba Musta, & Shariff A. K. Omang. 2012. Adjustment factor for Slope Mass Rating (SMR) system: Revisited. Proceeding of National Geoscience Conference 2012 (NGC2012), Kuching, Sarawak.
  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Tahir & Baba Musta. 2009a. Modified Slope Mass Rating (MSMR) system: A classification scheme of interbedded Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Proceeding of the 8th Seminar on Science and Technology 2009 (S&T2009), Tuaran, Sabah.
  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Tahir, Baba Musta & Shariff A. K. Omang. 2009b. Lithological unit thickness approach for determining Intact Rock Strength of slope forming rock material of Crocker Formation. Borneo Science, 25, pp. 23-31. ISSN 1394-4339.
  • Ismail Abd Rahim. 2011. Rock mass classification of the Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu for rock slope engineering purpose, Sabah, Malaysia. PhD Thesis, Universiti Malaysia
    Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
  • Pantelidis, L. 2009. Rock slope stability assessment through rock mass classification systems. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 46, pp. 315-325.
  • Romana, M. 1 985. New adjustment rating for application of Bieniawski classification for slopes. Proceeding of International Symposium on the Role of Rock Mechanics,
    Zacatecas, Mexico, pp 49-53.
  • Romana, M. 1993. A geomechanical classification for slope:slope mass rating. In: Hudson, J. A. (Ed.). Comprehensive Rock Engineering. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 575-599.
  • Sanudin Tahir & Baba Musta. 2007. Pengenalan Kepada Stratigrafi. Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
  • Singh, B. & Geol, R. K. 1999. Rock Mass Classification: A Practical Approach in Civil Engineering. Elsevier, Oxford, 267 p.
  • Tomas, R., Cuenca, A., Cano, M. & Garcia-Barba, J. 2012. A graphical approach for slopemass rating (SMR). Engineering Geology 124, pp. 67-76.
  • Tongkul, F. 1991. Tectonic evolution of Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Science 6, pp. 395-495.
  • Van Hattum, M. W. A. 2003. Provenance of northern Borneo sediments. Proceeding of the Twenty-ninth Annual Petroleum Convention & Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesian.
  • Yu, Y. F., Siu, C. K. & Pun, W. K. 2005. Guidelines on the use of prescriptive measures for rock cut slopes. GEO Report No. 161, Hong Kong Geotechnical Engineering Office, 31p.

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Russel Felix Koiting*, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap

Borneo Marine Research Institute,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Contact person: Emai:

ABSTRACT. Mantanani Besar Island is one of the community and tourism islands in the west coast of Sabah. It is inhabited by local Ubian people which stated that the island receiving major problem of erosion around the island. Ocean motion (waves and currents) and winds causes the erosion and together with seasonal monsoons change the intensity and formation of waves, winds and the periodic storms. These combinations intensified the geomorphic processes of erosion and accretion along the shoreline. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to determine the beach morphologies (beach profile, volume and angle) and sediment parameters during pre- and post- southwest monsoon (SWM). This study was conducted on May and November 2013 in order to see the beach changes done before and after the peak 2013 SWM (May to September). Beach profiles were measured at 5 stations around the island. Further measurements on beach volume and angle were calculated based on the beach profile readings. Sediment samples were collected at mid tide and analyzed the sediment parameters (mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis). Results show most of the beach profile increase in post-SWM than in pre-SWM. Significant changes of the beach elevation were found at northern part of the island (st 4 and st 5). Beach volume increases in most of the station with a range from 2.71 to 9.19 while only st 3 experienced sediment loss with -0.75 Beach angle are also increase at most of the station (1 o) but significantly increase at st 5 (4.62o). Based on the sediment size analysis, mean values are decreasing shows the increase of energy condition. Most of the sediment are moderately sorted and positively skewness. The kurtosis value are vary indicates the presence of other source of sorting. The information gathered on this study is useful for the development along the beach and future management plan of the island.

KEYWORDS: beach profile and angle, sediment characteristics, shoreline changes, Mantanani Besar Island


  • Ali, T. A. 2010. Analysis of shoreline changes based on the geometric representation of the shorelines in the GIS data. Journal of Geography and Geospatial Information Science, 1: 1-16.
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  • Morphologies Changes during Pre- and Post- Southwest Season in Mantanani Besar Island, Kota Belud
  • Dora, G. U. Kumar, V. S. Johnson, G. Philip C. S. Vinayaraj, P. & Gowthaman, R. 2011. Textural characteristics of foreshore sediments along Karnataka shoreline, west coast of India. International Journal of Sediment Restoration, 26: 364 – 377.
  • Dora, G. U. Kumar, V. S. Johnson, G. Philip C. S. & Vinayaraj, P. 2012. Short-Term Observation ofBeach Dynamics Using Cross-Shore Profiles and Foreshore Sediment. Journal of Ocean Coastal Management, 67: 101 – 112.
  • Duane, D. B. 1964. Significance of skewness in recent sediment, Western Pamlico Sound. North Carolina. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 34: 864 – 874.
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  • Folk, R. L. & Ward, W. C. 1957. Brazos River Bar: A Study in The Significance of Grain Size Parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 27: 3 – 26.
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  • Jamil, T. Norsila, D. & Ashraf, A. 2009. Distribution of Sediment Characteristic in Kilim River Estuary During the Non-Moonsoon and Monsoon Season. pp 381-387. (Accessed on 16 November, 2013).
  • Kumar, G. AL.Ramanathan, & Rajkumar, K. 2010. Textural characteristics of the surface sediments of a Tropical mangrove ecosystem Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, India. Journal of Marine Science, 39: 415 – 422.
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Ellena Yusti¹*, Ibnu Maryanto², Bambang Suryobroto³
¹Master Program in Animal Bioscience, Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University,
Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
²Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of
Sciences (LIPI), Jl.Raya Cibinong KM 47, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia
³Department of Animal Bioscience, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science Bogor
Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT. A study of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) was conducted in the mountain region of Bawakaraeng, Gowa and Sinjai, South Sulawesi from September to December 2013. This study aims to determine the fruit bats composition and diversity, habitat preferences and relation between bats individual captured with the moon phases. Ten species (265 individuals) of fruit bats were captured using standardized mist netting in five habitat types and elevations. Shannon-Wiener indices were highest in mixed garden (1453 m asl) and lowest in pine forest (1545 m asl), with the highest evenness in mixed garden and pine forest. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the habitat preferences were found in the mixed garden (1453 m asl) and primary forest with a river stream (2000 m asl), while at moon phases, number of individual bats captured in the dark moon phase was higher than full moon phases. This study shows that the abundance of fruit bats tightly associated with food availibility.

KEYWORDS. Fruit bats, distribution, habitat preferences, moon phases\


  • Barlow, K. 1999. Bats: Expedition Field Tehniques. London : Royal Geographic Society. Bergmans, W. & Rozendaal FG. 1988. Notes on colections of fruit bats from Sulawesi and
    some off-lying islands (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). Amsterdam :Universiteit van Amsterdam.
  • Bork, SK. 2006. Lunar phobia in the greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae). Revista de Bioogial Tropical : 54(4): 1117-1123.
  • Cristian, D. & Helversen, V. 2005. Illustrated identification key to the bats of Europe. Tuebingen and Erlangen, German : Electronic Publication. Corbet, GB. & Hill, JE. 1992. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region. A Systematics Review. Oxford : Oxford Press.
  • Esselstyn, JA. 2007. A new species of stripe-faced fruit bat (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae: Styloctenium) from the Philippines. Mammalogy : 88(4):951-958.
  • Gotelli, NJ. & Colwell, RK. 2011. Estimating Species Richness. In Magguran AE. & McGill BJ, editors. Frontiers In Measuring Biodiversity. New York (US): Malden Blackwell Publishing : 39-54.
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  • Larsen, JR. Begler, KA. Genoways, HH. Masefield, WP. Kirsch, RA. & Pedersen, SC. 2007. Mist netting bias, species accumulation curves and the rediscovery of two bats on Montserrat (Lesser Antiles). Acta Chiropterologica : 9(2): 423-435.
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  • Lang, AB. Elizabeth, K. Kalko, V. & Romer, H. 2005. Activity levels of bats and katydids in relation to the lunar cycle. Oecologia.
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  • The Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera, Pteroppodedae) From Bawakaraeng Moutain, South Sulawesi Mello, MAR. Kalko, EKV. & Silva, WR. 2013. Effect of moonlight on the capturability of frugivorous phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) at different time scales. Zoologia : 30 (4) :397-402.
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  • Racey, PA. 1988. Reproductive Assessment In Bats. In Ecological and Behavioural Methods for Study of Bats. Washington DC (US): Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Sampaio, EM. Kalko, EKV. Enrico, B. Bernal, RH. & Charles, OH. 2003. A biodiversity assessment of Bats (Chiroptera) in a tropical lowland rainforest of Central Amazonia,
    including methodological and conservation considerations. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment : 38 : 17-31.
  • Storz, JF. Bhat, H. & Kunz, TH. 2000. Social structure of a polygonous tent-making bat Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera). Zoology : 251(2): 151–165. Sumaryono, Dasa YT. 2011. Simulasi aliran bahan rombakan di Gunung Bawakaraeng, Sulawesi Selatan. Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi, 2: 191 – 202.
  • Suyanto, A. 2001. Kelelawar di Indonesia. Bogor (ID) : LIPI.
  • Suyanto, A. Yoneda, M. Maryanto, I. Maharadatunkamsi, Sugardjito, J. 2002. Checklist Of The Mammals Of Indonesia : Scientific Names And Distribution Area Tables In Indonesia Catagories For Conservation. Bogor (ID): LIPI.
  • Wiantoro, S. & Achamadi, AS. 2011. Keanekaragaman mamalia kecil di Pulau Moti. Ekologi Ternate : 55-68.

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Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan*, Rudy Kilip, Dezvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT.Marine debris is a well-known issue faced by the public today and the problem is becoming serious day by day. In this study, quantification and classification of marine debris for plastic, fabric, paper, metal, glass and rubber was conducted to evaluate the marine littering of contamination level at Likas Bay. This study also aims to identify the sources of the marine debris whether it was from the land or was brought in from the sea. By selecting 10m x 10m transects randomly, the marine litters that were collected along the bay were rinsed, dried, weighted and classified according to categories. Total of 3396 items/100m2 of marine debris with the weight of 14499.36g/100m2 were collected throughout the study. From the result, it shows that plastic dominated the overall numbers and weight percentage of marine debris with 94.38% in numbers and 65.29% in weight. The study also indicates that the occurrence of marine debris at Likas Bay was not mainly caused from recreational activities at the area, but was brought in from the sea. This may due to the physical condition and the bay position which has the tendency to trap the marine debris from the sea. Therefore, further investigation should be undergoing to overcome and reduce the impact to the marine debris.

KEYWORDS: Marine debris, Littering, Transects, Bay


  • Abu-Hilal, A.H. & Al-Najjar, T. 2004. Litter pollution on the Jordanian shores of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Marine environmental research, 58(1):39–63.
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    Bravo, M., Gallardo, A., Luna-Jorquera, G.,Núñez, P., Vásquez, N., & Thiel, M. 2009. Anthropogenic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): results from a national survey supported by volunteers. Marine pollution bulletin, 58(11):1718–26.
  • Claereboudt, M.R. 2004. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Marine pollution bulletin, 49(9-10):770–777. Derraik, J.G.B. 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine pollution bulletin, 44(9):842–52.
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  • Moore, S.L., Gregorio, D., Carreon, M., Weisberg, S.B. & Leecaster, M.K. 2001. Composition and distribution of beach debris in Orange County, California. Marine pollution
    bulletin, 42(3):241 –5 Rees, G. & Pond, K. 1995. Marine litter monitoring programmes—A review of methods with special reference to national surveys. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30(2):103–108.
  • Rosevelt, C.,Huertos, M.L., Garza, C. & Nevins, H.M. 2013. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA. Marine pollution bulletin, 71(1-2):299–306.
  • Slavin, C., Grage, A. & Campbell, M.L. 2012. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches. Marine pollution bulletin, 64(8):1580–1588.
  • Somerville, S.E., Miller, K.L. & Mair, J.M. 2003. Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland. Marine pollution bulletin, 46(9):1184–90.
  • Topçu, E.N., Tonay, A.M., Dede, A., Öztürk, A.A. & Öztürk, B. 2013. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Marine environmental research, 85:21–8.
  • Van Cauwenberghe, L.,Claessens, M., Vandegehuchte, M.B., Mees, J. & Janssen, C.R. 2013. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf. Marine pollution bulletin, 73(1):161 –9.
  • Zhou, P., Huang, C., Fang, H., Cai, W., Li, D., Li, X. & Yu, H. 2011. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China). Marine pollution bulletin, 62(9):1998–2007.

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Volume 35 (Full Volume)

Evaluation of Depression Criteria Using Analytic Hierarchy Process: A Case Study on Universiti Malaysia Sabah Sciences’ Schools
– Asdalifah Talibe, Zaturrawiah Ali Omar & Tong Sin Bei (p.1)

Physicochemical and Organoleptic Evaluation of Muffin Partially Substituted with Roselle Calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L) Powder
– Siti Faridah Mohd. Amin, Hasmadi Mamat, Lee Jau Shya, & Nurul Syuhada Roslan (p.10)

Sea Bottom Morphology and Sediment Distribution of Kuala Besar Kelantan River Delta and Its Offshore Areas
– Nurul Afifah Mohd Radzir, Che Aziz Ali, Kamal Roslan Mohamed, & Ramlan Omar (p.18)

A Preliminary Study of Parasitic Infections of Some Fished from Kinabatangan River, Sandakan, Sabah
– Hairul Hafiz Mahsol, Norizzah Zainuddin, Noor Farniza Habiib Abdullah &Abdul Hamid Ahmad (28)

Crowd Simulation Based on Flocking Behaviour on Parallel Cuda Platform

– Norhafiza Hamzah, Norsuzila Yusof & Z.A.Omar (p.34)


Originally Submitted in 2014. Published Online in 2016.

Download FULL VOLUME here (Via Google Drive)

If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.



School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Depression has been ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the fourth most disabling disease in mental health problems. The aim of this study is therefore to determine the most common criteria of depression among students from five sciences’ schools in Universiti Malaysia Sabah by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The criterion was based on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) I. There were three main criteria and were broken down into several sub-criteria in detail. The main criteria were negative attitudes towards self, performance impairment and somatic disturbances. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 19. The results showed that the collected data were random (run test of median = 0.247, mean = 0.087) and normally distributed (ShapiroWilk test = 0.326). The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.901 indicated that the questionnaire was reliable. The results of this study indicated somatic (bodily) disturbance and insomnia with the same relative weight of 0.4111 were the most common criteria and sub-criteria of depression for all school and also for different schools. Since all the consistency ratios were less than or greater than 0.1, the levels of consistency were acceptable.

KEYWORDS. Depression, Analytic Hierarchy Process, selection criteria



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  • Taha, H. A. 2007. Operations Research: An Introduction. Singapore: Pearson Education International.


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1*Siti Faridah Mohd. Amin, 1Hasmadi Mamat, 1Lee Jau Shya, & 1Nurul Syuhada Roslan

Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% roselle calyces powder (RCP) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of muffin was studied. Roselle calyces powder was produced by using spray drying. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and proximate analysis showed significant difference (p<0.05) between control and muffin substituted with RCP. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 20% of RCP significantly (p<0.05) increased the ash and crude fiber content in muffin samples. Sensory evaluation results indicated that muffin with 10% substitution of RCP was rated the most acceptable.

KEYWORDS. muffin, roselle calyces powder, loaf volume, oven spring, crude fibre



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Nurul Afifah Mohd Radzir*1, Che Aziz Ali1, Kamal Roslan Mohamed1, & Ramlan Omar2
1Geology Program,
2Environmental Science Program,
School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
University Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi,
Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Kuala Besar is part of the modern Kelantan River Delta complex and exhibits continuous changes in morphology because of the erosion, wave and sediment distribution. The precision of echo sounding data and 65 grab samples are integrated to reveal the bathymetry and sediment distribution at the Kuala Besar, Kelantan River Delta. Different sediment distribution patterns are found from the nearshore towards offshore, whereas the nearshore situated the fine silt size of grain, extended to the sea are dominated with the silt to sand size with account of 86%,, meanwhile the offshore area placed the sand size of sediment ranging from the 0.11 mm to 1.31 mm account for 100% maximum value. As per difference of the sediment distribution lead to the contribution of the bathymetry pattern change from the mouth bar towards the marine shelf due to the increasing of the distance from the land. These changes are brought about by the interactions of the various factors such as river influx, wave and climate that hits the coastal of east Peninsular Malaysia, where located the study area; thus resulting in morphological changes and sediments deposits pattern. The combinations of these factors produce a newly formed of the area which showing a retreat pattern of the sediment distribution promote by a gentle slope gradient of seabed morphology. Hence, the sediments distribution at different zone indicates the evolution of destructive wave types of the study area.

KEYWORDS. Kuala Besar, Kelantan River Delta, bathymetry, sediment distribution,destructive delta


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Hairul Hafiz Mahsol1*, Norizzah Zainuddin2, Noor Farniza Habib Abdullah2 & Abdul Hamid Ahmad1
1Institute for Tropical Biology & Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,
84000 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. 2School of Science & Technology, Universiti
Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS, 84000 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. A survey of fishes of the Kinabatangan River was conducted to determine the fish types, abundance and prevalence of parasitic infection. The fishes were collected with gill nets in two distinct areas, named Abai and Bilit. Eleven fish species in ten genera and ten families were encountered. The family Ariidae formed 36.3% of the total number of individuals (n=80) while the rest were Pangasiidae (15%), Siluridae (11.3%), Cyprinidae (10%), Engraulidae (7.5%), Bagridae (6.3%), Toxotidae (6.3%), Sciaenidae (3.8%), Megalopidae (2.5%) and Clariidae (1.3%). Both ectoparasites and endoparasites especially intestinal helminth were recorded. The ectoparasite infestation rate was 45% whereas the endoparasite remain only 17.5%. The overall parasitic infection rate was more than half of sample (53.8%).This preliminary data indicated that almost halfof the population of fishes from these areas could be exposed to parasitic infection.

KEYWORDS. Infection, Parasites, Fishes, Kinabatangan River.

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