Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail, Mahyar Kolivand

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innovation Centre of Excellence)
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Realistic soft shadows in Augmented Reality (AR) is a fascinating topic in computer graphics. Many researchers are involved to have a significant improvement on this demand. In this paper, we have presented a new technique to produce soft shadows using one of the well-known methods in mathematics called Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic is taken into account to generate the realistic soft shadows in AR. The wide light source is split into some parts that each of them plays the rule of a single light source. The desired soft shadow is generated by splitting the wide light source into multiple parts and considering each part as a single light source. The method which we called Fuzzy Soft Shadow is employed in AR to enhance the quality of semi-soft shadows and soft shadows.

KEYWORDS. Soft Shadows, Augmented Reality, Fuzzy logic



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  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. 2013b. Covering photometric properties of outdoor components with the effects of sky color in mixed reality. Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp.1–20.
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Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman1*, Abdullah Bade2

1Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Email: h.a.sulaiman@ieee.org

ABSTRACT. Computing penetration depth between two or more polygons commonly described by most researchers as one of the high computational cost process. Major implementation required numbers of pre-processing function just to find the minimum penetrating depth between those penetrated objects or polygons. In this paper, we proposed a technique that manipulates the advantages of Dynamic Pivot Point into computing penetration depth between two or more objects. Comparing our proposed technique (DyOP-PD) with the well-known Lin-Canny technique, the conducted experiments proved that our proposed technique has achieved better efficiency. Overall time for DyOP-PD technique to compute penetration depth was significantly faster than the Lin-Canny PD technique (refer Figure 6.9). Our technique was faster than the prominent technique where the computational time significantly reduced, solved a larger fraction of problems, and produced better paths of penetration depth. The lowest results recorded from our simulation was in average at 10.22 milliseconds for DyOP PD and 21.33 milliseconds for Lin-Canny PD technique. The findings proved that DyOP-PD technique is robust to handle efficient, nearly accurate, and fast penetration depth detection compared to Lin-Canny-PD technique.

KEYWORDS. Collision detection, penetration depth, virtual environment



  • Bergen, G. V D. 2001. Proximity Queries and Penetration Depth Computation on 3D Game Objects, in Game Developers Conference.
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  • Redon, S., Kheddar, A. & Coquillart. S., 2002. Fast Continuous Collision Detection between Rigid Bodies. Computer Graphics Forum, 21: 279-287.
  • Shengzheng, W. & Jie, Y. 2009. Efficient Collision Detection for Soft Tissue Simulation In A Surgical Planning System. Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics, 2009. CAD/Graphics ’09. 11th IEEE International Conference on, 49-53.
  • Stephane, R. & Lin, M. C. 2006. A Fast Method for Local Penetration Depth Computation. Journal of Graphics Tools.
  • Sulaiman, H. A., Othman, M. A., Ismail, M. M, Misran, M. H., Said, M. A., B. M., Ramlee, R. A. 2013. Quad Separation Algorithm for Bounding-Volume Hierarchies Construction In Virtual
  • Environment Application. Journal of Next Generation Information Technology, 4: 63-73
  • Zhang, L., Kim Y. J., Varadhan, G. & Manocha, D. 2007. Generalized Penetration Depth Computation. Computer-Aided Design, 39(8): 625-638.
  • Zhang, X., Kim, Y. J. & Manocha, D. 2014. Continuous Penetration Depth. Computer-Aided Design, 46: 3-13

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Mustafa Man, W. Aezwani W.A. Bakar, Noraida Hj. Ali and Masita Abd. Jalil

Department of Computer Science
School of Informatics and Applied Mathematics
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.
mustafaman@umt.edu.my, beny2194@yahoo.com, aida@umt.edu.my, masita@umt.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Data integration is considered as one of the hot issues to be solved especially in integrating unstructured data with multiple types and formats. This paper introduces a new model for integrating multiple types of heterogeneous data applying to mud crabs case study in Setiu Wetland (SW). The Hybrid Federated Data Warehouse (HyFeDWare) model combines two approaches which are Data Warehouse and Federated Database. Simulation result shows that the processing time for integration of unstructured biodiversity data of mud crabs are lesser than 2 seconds for 12 rows of 7 MB data. This model generally could be used to integrate any types and format of data in distributed environment.

KEYWORDS. Data Integration, Data Warehouse, Federated database, Distributed Environment.



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Ahmad Sani, Mohd Daud Kasmuni, Mahardhika Candra Prasetyahadi, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim and Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Faculty of Computing
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai, Johor-Malaysia

ABSTRACT. We investigate the possibility for using portions of Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptors in a part- based people detection framework. Instead of extracting descriptors from isolated or pre-cropped human parts, we slice the extracted HOG descriptor from whole windows into four, one slice per one human part. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used for classifying the slices and the outcome detections are handled by a finite-state machine where three detected parts means that one assumed person is in the window being scanned. Experiments were conducted for our detection framework and another conventional one that uses whole HOG descriptors using images from the INRIA Person Dataset, in which our framework achieved better; detecting 46/50 of occluded people comparing to 36/50 for the conventional framework. Moreover, we achieved less false positive detections of 80 windows comparing to 289 for the conventional framework.

KEYWORDS. People detection; object detection; histograms of oriented gradients; partbased detection framework



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    multiscale, deformable part model,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Anchorage, AKpp. 1 -8.
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Volume 36, Issue 1 (Full Volume)


Assesment of Toxicity Level in Selected Heavy Metal in Volcanic Soils from Tawau, Sabah
– Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta (p.1)

Geomechanical Classification Scheme for Heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
– Ismail Abd Rahim (p.12)

Morphologies Changes during Pre- and Post- Southwest Season in Mantanani Besar Island, Kota Belud, Sabah
– Russsel Felix Koiting, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap (p. 21)

The Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae) From Bawakareng Mountain, South Sulawesi
– Ellena Yusti, Ibnu Maryanto & Bambang Suryobroto (p.33)

Classification and Quantification of Marine Debris at Teluk Likas, Sabah
– Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan, Rudy Kilip, Dazvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus (p.44)

Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

Download FULL VOLUME here (Via Google Drive)

If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.


Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin*, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta

Faculty of Science & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*E-mail address: mohamedaliyusof@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. Heavy metals are one of the serious pollutants in environment because its toxicity. Severe concentration of heavy metals can harm the plants, animals and even human. During the pedogenesis process, heavy metals from the parent rock are mobilized in soils and redistribute in to the environment. The objective of this paper is to study the concentration and toxicity level of selected heavy metals in volcanic soils around Tawau, Sabah. In this study 10 soil samples were collected from different sampling stations. The selection of soil
samples were based on the different type of volcanic rocks in the study area. The determination of concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were carried out using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The result shows, the highest concentration is chromium with the average of 141 ppm followed by zinc with 112 ppm. The concentration of copper is 49 ppm, nickel 15 ppm, lead 8 ppm and arsenic 7 ppm. The soil samples is identified as polluted due to the elevated concentration of certain heavy metals when compared with the Sediment Quality Guidelines of US EPA. Chromium is regarded as heavily polluted agent while zinc, copper and arsenic indicated that the area is moderately polluted. Nickel and lead average concentration show no indication of pollution in the area. It is concluded that the combined source of heavy metals in the study area would be the parent materials of the soils and other anthropogenic effluent. From the study also, it is found out that pH value, organic matter and clay percentage has influenced the heavy metal concentration in volcanic soil in the study area.

KEYWORDS.  Heavy Metals, Tawau, Volcanic Soils, XRF.



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  • Matera, V., Le Hécho, I., Laboudigue, A., Thomas, P., Tellier, S. & Astruc, M. 2003. A Methodological Approach for The Identification of Arsenic Bearing Phases in Polluted Soils. Environmental Pollution 126 (2003) 51-64.
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    Perin, G., Bonardi, M., Fabris, R., Simoncini, B., Manente, S., Tosi, L. & Scotto, S. 1997. Heavy Metal Pollution in Central Venice Lagoon Bottom Sediments: Evaluation of Metal Bioavailability by Geochemical Speciation Procedure. Environmental Technology 18 593-604.
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  • Schlotz, R. & Uhlig, S. 2006. Introduction to X-ray Flourescence Analysis (XRF). Bruker AXS GmbH, Karlruhe, West Germany.
  • Shan, W., Xinghui X., Chunye L., Xi, C. & Chuanhui, Z. 2010. Levels of Arsenic and Heavy Metals in The Rural Soils of Beijing and Their Changes Ove The Last Two Decades (1985-2008). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179:860-868.
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Ismail Abd Rahim
Natural Disasters Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti
Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Phone: 088 320000 (5734/5999)
Fax: 088 435324

. Geomechanical classification scheme for heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has been proposed in 2009 and known as Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR). M-SMR was used to characterize and to propose preliminary rock cut slope design such as slope stabilization and protection measures and recommendation levels for design model review and slope remapping by suitable engineering geologist or geotechnical
engineers. The ‘Lithological unit thickness’ approach, RQD method, weighted average of discontinuity set spacing, weighted average, statistical mode and new approach of adjustment factor (NAAF) methods were used to evaluate the parameters in M-SMR. The classes in MSMR scheme consists of class I (very good) to class VI (extremely bad). Local trimming, slope re-profiling, weep hole, horizontal drainage, concrete dentition or buttress, rock bolting or dowel, wire mesh or rope nets, reinforce shotcrete and benching are proposed slope stabilization and protection measures. Normal to detailed Design Model Review (DMR) and slope remapping are recommended to highly recommended by engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers to expert engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers for class I to class VI, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Geomechanical classification, Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR), Crocker Formation, Kota Kinabalu, slope design.


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  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Baba Musta, & Shariff A. K. Omang. 2012. Adjustment factor for Slope Mass Rating (SMR) system: Revisited. Proceeding of National Geoscience Conference 2012 (NGC2012), Kuching, Sarawak.
  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Tahir & Baba Musta. 2009a. Modified Slope Mass Rating (MSMR) system: A classification scheme of interbedded Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Proceeding of the 8th Seminar on Science and Technology 2009 (S&T2009), Tuaran, Sabah.
  • Ismail Abd Rahim, Sanudin Tahir, Baba Musta & Shariff A. K. Omang. 2009b. Lithological unit thickness approach for determining Intact Rock Strength of slope forming rock material of Crocker Formation. Borneo Science, 25, pp. 23-31. ISSN 1394-4339.
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    Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
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    Zacatecas, Mexico, pp 49-53.
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Russel Felix Koiting*, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap

Borneo Marine Research Institute,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Contact person: Emai: rfk_moon_2509@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. Mantanani Besar Island is one of the community and tourism islands in the west coast of Sabah. It is inhabited by local Ubian people which stated that the island receiving major problem of erosion around the island. Ocean motion (waves and currents) and winds causes the erosion and together with seasonal monsoons change the intensity and formation of waves, winds and the periodic storms. These combinations intensified the geomorphic processes of erosion and accretion along the shoreline. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to determine the beach morphologies (beach profile, volume and angle) and sediment parameters during pre- and post- southwest monsoon (SWM). This study was conducted on May and November 2013 in order to see the beach changes done before and after the peak 2013 SWM (May to September). Beach profiles were measured at 5 stations around the island. Further measurements on beach volume and angle were calculated based on the beach profile readings. Sediment samples were collected at mid tide and analyzed the sediment parameters (mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis). Results show most of the beach profile increase in post-SWM than in pre-SWM. Significant changes of the beach elevation were found at northern part of the island (st 4 and st 5). Beach volume increases in most of the station with a range from 2.71 to 9.19 while only st 3 experienced sediment loss with -0.75 Beach angle are also increase at most of the station (1 o) but significantly increase at st 5 (4.62o). Based on the sediment size analysis, mean values are decreasing shows the increase of energy condition. Most of the sediment are moderately sorted and positively skewness. The kurtosis value are vary indicates the presence of other source of sorting. The information gathered on this study is useful for the development along the beach and future management plan of the island.

KEYWORDS: beach profile and angle, sediment characteristics, shoreline changes, Mantanani Besar Island


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Ellena Yusti¹*, Ibnu Maryanto², Bambang Suryobroto³
¹Master Program in Animal Bioscience, Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University,
Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
²Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of
Sciences (LIPI), Jl.Raya Cibinong KM 47, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia
³Department of Animal Bioscience, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science Bogor
Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
Corresponding author: yuellena@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. A study of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) was conducted in the mountain region of Bawakaraeng, Gowa and Sinjai, South Sulawesi from September to December 2013. This study aims to determine the fruit bats composition and diversity, habitat preferences and relation between bats individual captured with the moon phases. Ten species (265 individuals) of fruit bats were captured using standardized mist netting in five habitat types and elevations. Shannon-Wiener indices were highest in mixed garden (1453 m asl) and lowest in pine forest (1545 m asl), with the highest evenness in mixed garden and pine forest. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the habitat preferences were found in the mixed garden (1453 m asl) and primary forest with a river stream (2000 m asl), while at moon phases, number of individual bats captured in the dark moon phase was higher than full moon phases. This study shows that the abundance of fruit bats tightly associated with food availibility.

KEYWORDS. Fruit bats, distribution, habitat preferences, moon phases\


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    some off-lying islands (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). Amsterdam :Universiteit van Amsterdam.
  • Bork, SK. 2006. Lunar phobia in the greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae). Revista de Bioogial Tropical : 54(4): 1117-1123.
  • Cristian, D. & Helversen, V. 2005. Illustrated identification key to the bats of Europe. Tuebingen and Erlangen, German : Electronic Publication. Corbet, GB. & Hill, JE. 1992. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region. A Systematics Review. Oxford : Oxford Press.
  • Esselstyn, JA. 2007. A new species of stripe-faced fruit bat (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae: Styloctenium) from the Philippines. Mammalogy : 88(4):951-958.
  • Gotelli, NJ. & Colwell, RK. 2011. Estimating Species Richness. In Magguran AE. & McGill BJ, editors. Frontiers In Measuring Biodiversity. New York (US): Malden Blackwell Publishing : 39-54.
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  • Heideman, PD. & Heaney, LR. 1989. Population biology and estimates of abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in Philippine submontane rainforest. Zoology : 218: 565-586.
  • Larsen, JR. Begler, KA. Genoways, HH. Masefield, WP. Kirsch, RA. & Pedersen, SC. 2007. Mist netting bias, species accumulation curves and the rediscovery of two bats on Montserrat (Lesser Antiles). Acta Chiropterologica : 9(2): 423-435.
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  • The Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera, Pteroppodedae) From Bawakaraeng Moutain, South Sulawesi Mello, MAR. Kalko, EKV. & Silva, WR. 2013. Effect of moonlight on the capturability of frugivorous phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) at different time scales. Zoologia : 30 (4) :397-402.
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    including methodological and conservation considerations. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment : 38 : 17-31.
  • Storz, JF. Bhat, H. & Kunz, TH. 2000. Social structure of a polygonous tent-making bat Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera). Zoology : 251(2): 151–165. Sumaryono, Dasa YT. 2011. Simulasi aliran bahan rombakan di Gunung Bawakaraeng, Sulawesi Selatan. Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi, 2: 191 – 202.
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  • Wiantoro, S. & Achamadi, AS. 2011. Keanekaragaman mamalia kecil di Pulau Moti. Ekologi Ternate : 55-68.

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Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan*, Rudy Kilip, Dezvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Email: f_anis@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT.Marine debris is a well-known issue faced by the public today and the problem is becoming serious day by day. In this study, quantification and classification of marine debris for plastic, fabric, paper, metal, glass and rubber was conducted to evaluate the marine littering of contamination level at Likas Bay. This study also aims to identify the sources of the marine debris whether it was from the land or was brought in from the sea. By selecting 10m x 10m transects randomly, the marine litters that were collected along the bay were rinsed, dried, weighted and classified according to categories. Total of 3396 items/100m2 of marine debris with the weight of 14499.36g/100m2 were collected throughout the study. From the result, it shows that plastic dominated the overall numbers and weight percentage of marine debris with 94.38% in numbers and 65.29% in weight. The study also indicates that the occurrence of marine debris at Likas Bay was not mainly caused from recreational activities at the area, but was brought in from the sea. This may due to the physical condition and the bay position which has the tendency to trap the marine debris from the sea. Therefore, further investigation should be undergoing to overcome and reduce the impact to the marine debris.

KEYWORDS: Marine debris, Littering, Transects, Bay


  • Abu-Hilal, A.H. & Al-Najjar, T. 2004. Litter pollution on the Jordanian shores of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Marine environmental research, 58(1):39–63.
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    Bravo, M., Gallardo, A., Luna-Jorquera, G.,Núñez, P., Vásquez, N., & Thiel, M. 2009. Anthropogenic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): results from a national survey supported by volunteers. Marine pollution bulletin, 58(11):1718–26.
  • Claereboudt, M.R. 2004. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Marine pollution bulletin, 49(9-10):770–777. Derraik, J.G.B. 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine pollution bulletin, 44(9):842–52.
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  • Moore, S.L., Gregorio, D., Carreon, M., Weisberg, S.B. & Leecaster, M.K. 2001. Composition and distribution of beach debris in Orange County, California. Marine pollution
    bulletin, 42(3):241 –5 Rees, G. & Pond, K. 1995. Marine litter monitoring programmes—A review of methods with special reference to national surveys. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30(2):103–108.
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  • Slavin, C., Grage, A. & Campbell, M.L. 2012. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches. Marine pollution bulletin, 64(8):1580–1588.
  • Somerville, S.E., Miller, K.L. & Mair, J.M. 2003. Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland. Marine pollution bulletin, 46(9):1184–90.
  • Topçu, E.N., Tonay, A.M., Dede, A., Öztürk, A.A. & Öztürk, B. 2013. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Marine environmental research, 85:21–8.
  • Van Cauwenberghe, L.,Claessens, M., Vandegehuchte, M.B., Mees, J. & Janssen, C.R. 2013. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf. Marine pollution bulletin, 73(1):161 –9.
  • Zhou, P., Huang, C., Fang, H., Cai, W., Li, D., Li, X. & Yu, H. 2011. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China). Marine pollution bulletin, 62(9):1998–2007.

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Volume 35 (Full Volume)

Evaluation of Depression Criteria Using Analytic Hierarchy Process: A Case Study on Universiti Malaysia Sabah Sciences’ Schools
– Asdalifah Talibe, Zaturrawiah Ali Omar & Tong Sin Bei (p.1)

Physicochemical and Organoleptic Evaluation of Muffin Partially Substituted with Roselle Calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L) Powder
– Siti Faridah Mohd. Amin, Hasmadi Mamat, Lee Jau Shya, & Nurul Syuhada Roslan (p.10)

Sea Bottom Morphology and Sediment Distribution of Kuala Besar Kelantan River Delta and Its Offshore Areas
– Nurul Afifah Mohd Radzir, Che Aziz Ali, Kamal Roslan Mohamed, & Ramlan Omar (p.18)

A Preliminary Study of Parasitic Infections of Some Fished from Kinabatangan River, Sandakan, Sabah
– Hairul Hafiz Mahsol, Norizzah Zainuddin, Noor Farniza Habiib Abdullah &Abdul Hamid Ahmad (28)

Crowd Simulation Based on Flocking Behaviour on Parallel Cuda Platform

– Norhafiza Hamzah, Norsuzila Yusof & Z.A.Omar (p.34)


Originally Submitted in 2014. Published Online in 2016.

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If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.



School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Depression has been ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the fourth most disabling disease in mental health problems. The aim of this study is therefore to determine the most common criteria of depression among students from five sciences’ schools in Universiti Malaysia Sabah by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The criterion was based on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) I. There were three main criteria and were broken down into several sub-criteria in detail. The main criteria were negative attitudes towards self, performance impairment and somatic disturbances. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 19. The results showed that the collected data were random (run test of median = 0.247, mean = 0.087) and normally distributed (ShapiroWilk test = 0.326). The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.901 indicated that the questionnaire was reliable. The results of this study indicated somatic (bodily) disturbance and insomnia with the same relative weight of 0.4111 were the most common criteria and sub-criteria of depression for all school and also for different schools. Since all the consistency ratios were less than or greater than 0.1, the levels of consistency were acceptable.

KEYWORDS. Depression, Analytic Hierarchy Process, selection criteria



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  • Simin, H. & Zahra, G. 2011. A survey Beck test in university students & its relationship between some related risk factors. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28: 558- 562.
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1*Siti Faridah Mohd. Amin, 1Hasmadi Mamat, 1Lee Jau Shya, & 1Nurul Syuhada Roslan

Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Email*: ctfaridah80@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% roselle calyces powder (RCP) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of muffin was studied. Roselle calyces powder was produced by using spray drying. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and proximate analysis showed significant difference (p<0.05) between control and muffin substituted with RCP. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 20% of RCP significantly (p<0.05) increased the ash and crude fiber content in muffin samples. Sensory evaluation results indicated that muffin with 10% substitution of RCP was rated the most acceptable.

KEYWORDS. muffin, roselle calyces powder, loaf volume, oven spring, crude fibre



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  • Olaoye, O., & Onilude, A. 2008. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked product from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 8: 192-203.
  • Pankaj S., Velua, V., Indrani, D., & Singh, R.P. 2013. Effect of dried guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) leaf powder on rheological, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of cookies. Food Research International. 50 (2): 704–709.
  • Samsudin, A. Mat Isa, A. & Mohd. Taufik, A. 2000. Pengeringan dengan menggunakan mesin pengering (drying of roselle using dryer). Journal of tropical Agriculture and Food Sceince. 28 (2): 167-172.
  • See, E., Abdullah, W., Nadiah, W., & Nor Aziah, A. A. 2007. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of breads supplemented with pumpkin flour. ASEAN Food Journal. 14: 123-130.
  • Suliman, A. M., Ali, A.O, Idriss, S.E.A., & Abdualrahman, M.A. 2011. A Comparative Study on Red and White Karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Calyces, Extracts and Their Products. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 10: 680-683.
  • Wong, P.-K., Yusof, S., Ghazali, H., & Man, Y.C. 2002. Physico-chemical characteristics of roselle (L.). Journal of Nutrition & Food Science. 32: 68-73.


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Nurul Afifah Mohd Radzir*1, Che Aziz Ali1, Kamal Roslan Mohamed1, & Ramlan Omar2
1Geology Program,
2Environmental Science Program,
School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
University Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi,
Selangor, Malaysia.
Email: nurulafifah.mradzir@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. Kuala Besar is part of the modern Kelantan River Delta complex and exhibits continuous changes in morphology because of the erosion, wave and sediment distribution. The precision of echo sounding data and 65 grab samples are integrated to reveal the bathymetry and sediment distribution at the Kuala Besar, Kelantan River Delta. Different sediment distribution patterns are found from the nearshore towards offshore, whereas the nearshore situated the fine silt size of grain, extended to the sea are dominated with the silt to sand size with account of 86%,, meanwhile the offshore area placed the sand size of sediment ranging from the 0.11 mm to 1.31 mm account for 100% maximum value. As per difference of the sediment distribution lead to the contribution of the bathymetry pattern change from the mouth bar towards the marine shelf due to the increasing of the distance from the land. These changes are brought about by the interactions of the various factors such as river influx, wave and climate that hits the coastal of east Peninsular Malaysia, where located the study area; thus resulting in morphological changes and sediments deposits pattern. The combinations of these factors produce a newly formed of the area which showing a retreat pattern of the sediment distribution promote by a gentle slope gradient of seabed morphology. Hence, the sediments distribution at different zone indicates the evolution of destructive wave types of the study area.

KEYWORDS. Kuala Besar, Kelantan River Delta, bathymetry, sediment distribution,destructive delta


  • Buller, A.T., & McManus J. 1979. Sediment Sampling and Analysis. In: Dyer KR (ed) Estuarine Hydrography and Sedimentation: A Handbook. Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Coleman, J. M., & Prior D. B. 1980. Deltaic Sand Bodies- A 1980 Short Course Education Course Note Series #15. Coastal Studies Institute, Lousiana State University.
  • Dale, W.L. 1956. Wind and Drift Currents in the South China Sea. J. Trop. Geogr., 8:1-31
  • Hong, E., Huang T.C., & Yu H.S. 2004. Morphology and Dynamic Sedimentology in front of the Retreating Tsengwen Delta, Southwestern Taiwan. TOA, Vol 15, No. 4, 565-587.
  • Kamal, R. M., Che A. A., & Usop, S. 1997. Perubahan dan Perkembangan Morfologi Delta Kelantan. Laporan Penyelidikan UKM S/5/96.
  • Koopsman, B.N. 1972. Sedimentation in the Kelantan Delta (Malaysia). Sediment. Geol., 7:65-84


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Hairul Hafiz Mahsol1*, Norizzah Zainuddin2, Noor Farniza Habib Abdullah2 & Abdul Hamid Ahmad1
1Institute for Tropical Biology & Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,
84000 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. 2School of Science & Technology, Universiti
Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS, 84000 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. A survey of fishes of the Kinabatangan River was conducted to determine the fish types, abundance and prevalence of parasitic infection. The fishes were collected with gill nets in two distinct areas, named Abai and Bilit. Eleven fish species in ten genera and ten families were encountered. The family Ariidae formed 36.3% of the total number of individuals (n=80) while the rest were Pangasiidae (15%), Siluridae (11.3%), Cyprinidae (10%), Engraulidae (7.5%), Bagridae (6.3%), Toxotidae (6.3%), Sciaenidae (3.8%), Megalopidae (2.5%) and Clariidae (1.3%). Both ectoparasites and endoparasites especially intestinal helminth were recorded. The ectoparasite infestation rate was 45% whereas the endoparasite remain only 17.5%. The overall parasitic infection rate was more than half of sample (53.8%).This preliminary data indicated that almost halfof the population of fishes from these areas could be exposed to parasitic infection.

KEYWORDS. Infection, Parasites, Fishes, Kinabatangan River.

  • Awharitoma, A.O & Okaka, C.E. 1999. Observation on the cichlid fishes in Ikpoba river and their parasitic infection. The Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 20: 129-137.
  • Hila Bu, S. S., & Leong, T. S. 1997. Fish parasite communities in tropical reservoirs along Perak River, Malaysia. Hydrobiologia, 356, 175-181
  • Kottelat, M., A. J. Whitten, S. N. Kartikasari & S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater Fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Hong Kong, Periplus Editions. 221 pp.
  • Lee Y.H., Lee N.C., Robert B.S. & Mani O., 2006. The Water Quality of Several Oxbow Lakes in Sabah, Malaysia and its Relation to Fish Fauna Distribution. Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 365-369.
  • Lim, K. K. P. & A. Wong, 1994. Fishes of the Kinabatangan basin, Sandakan district, Sabah, East Malaysia. Sabah Museum Journal, 1: 39-71.
  • Okaka, C.E, & Omoigberale, O.M 2002. Parasites of fishes of Okhuaihe River Edo State. African Scientist 3(1) : 1 -2.
  • Okaka, C.E. 1991. A survey into Helminth parasites of fishes of Asa river and its dam at Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental and Applied Biology. 3: 120-128.
  • Onwuliri, C.O.E. and Mgbemena, M.O. 1987. The Parasitic fauna of some freshwater fish from Jos Plateau, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Applied Fisheries Hydrobiology 2:33-37.
  • Rahman, W. A., & Ali, A. 1991. Helminthic fauna of some freshwater fish caught from two habitats in Pulau Langkawi, Kedah. Trop. Biomed., 8, 23-26.
  • Rahman, W. A., Ali, A., & Ros, A. C. 1992. On some Helminthic parasites of the Malayan catfish, Clarias batrachus in pond cultures from north Malaysia. Trop. Biomed., 9, 1 -2.
  • Rahman, W. A., & Bakri, M. 2008. On the endoparasitic fauna of some paddy field fishes from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Bioscience, 19, 107-112.
  • Shaharom, F., Kartini, M., & Sheikh Omar, A. R. 1992. Boviena serialis infestation in the catfish Clarias macrocephalus. J. Vet. Malaysia, 4(2), 151.
  • Ugwuzor, G.A. 1987. A survey of the helminthic parasites offish in Imo River. Nigerian Journal of Applied Fisheries and Hydrobiology. 225-30.
  • Umuoeren, N.A., Onwuliri, C.O.E & Anadu, D.I. 1988. Comparative studies in Endohelminth parasites of cultural and in cultured fish from Plateau State. Nigeria Journal of Applied Fisheries and Hydrobiology. 3: 45-48.
  • Yoshiba, K. 1964. Report of the preliminary survey on the orang-utan in North Borneo. Primates. 5(1-2), 11-26.

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Norhafiza Hamzah*, Norsuzila Yusof & Z.A.Omar
School of Science and Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT. This research is focused on flocking behaviour algorithm to simulate the crowd on parallel GPU using CUDA technology. The analysis of frame rates is conducted to compare the crowd simulation on parallel GPU platform and on a single processor. The result shows that the crowd simulation on a parallel GPU platform is 15 frames per second for 16, 384 characters. This result is equivalent with the number of frames per second for crowd simulation on a single processor with 576 characters. Thus, the results demonstrate that crowd simulation is more efficient on the parallel GPU platform especially for the large scale data. KEYWORDS. Crowd simulation; Flocking behaviour; GPU computing; CUDA



  • Jiang, H., Xu, W., Mao, T., Li, C., Xia, S. & Wang, Z. 2010. Continuum crowd simulation in complex environments. Computers & Graphics, 34(5): 537-544.
  • Reynolds, C. 2006. Big fast crowds on PS3. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on Videogames. Boston, Massachusetts: ACM, (pp.113-121).
  • Saboia, P. & Goldenstein, S. 2012. Vis Comput. Crowd simulation:applying mobile grids to  the social force model, pp.1039-1048.
  • Serrano, M. I. 2011. Flock Implementation for the Blender Game Engine. The Florida State University.
  • Passos, E., Joselli, M., Zamith, M., Rocha, J., Clua, E., Montenegro, A., Conci, A. & Feijó, B. 2008. Supermassive crowd simulation on GPU based on emergent behavior. Proceedings of the Seventh Brazilian Symposium on Computer Games and Digital Entertainment (SBGames’08), Sciedade Brasileira de Computação, SBC, pp.70-75.

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Rafeadah Rusli*, Hashim W. Samsi,
Roszaini Kadir, Salmiah Ujang, Zaihan Jalaludin, & Suffian Misran

Biocomposite and Wood Protection Programme,
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong 52109 Selangor, Malaysia
E-mail: rafeadah@frim.gov.my

ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using juvenile Acacia hybrid in manufacturing biocomposite boards. The mechanical, physical and fungal resistance properties of the boards produced were determined. The four year-old Acacia hybrid was obtained from several clones. The particleboards and medium density fibreboards (MDF) were manufactured at a target density of 750 kg/m3 and resin levels of 6, 8 and 10%. The results indicated that all particleboards and MDF complied with the Particleboard- specifications (BS EN 312:2010) and the Fibreboard specifications: Requirement for dry process boards (MDF) (BS EN 622-5: 2009, respectively. The fungal resistance properties of particleboard and MDF showed better in resistance compared to particleboard. The mechanical and physical properties of the particleboard were compared with the A. mangium particleboards.

KEYWORDS. Acacia hybrid, particleboard, medium density fibreboard, mechanical and physical properties, fungal resistance


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Lo Vun Yen & Kartini Saibeh*

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
E-mail: k_saibeh@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This research was carried out to determine the capability of Typha angustifolia L. for accumulation of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn). Typha angustifolia were planted in-situ in the tanks filled with mine water effluence (MWE) from the abandoned copper mine pit. The concentration of heavy metals in three replicates of plant root, stem and leaves were determined at Day 0 and Day 60. Samples of plant tissue were digested using hot concentrated nitric acid and the amounts of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The results showed that at Day 60, the concentrations of heavy metals were decreased in all plant part, except Fe and Cu were increased and Cr was increased in root and stem part.The results obtained from this research can be used as a fundamental data in maximizing the potential usage of T. angustifolia for mine water effluence (MWE) treatment at the ex-Mamut copper mine.

KEYWORDS. Accumulation, heavy metals, Typha angustifolia, mine water effluence


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Ahmad Norazhar Mohd Yatim*1, Dazvieo Keniin2,
Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan1,2, & Carolyn Melissa Payus1

1 School of Science and Technology,
2Water Research Unit,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Email: norazhar@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. Human activities surrounding natural rivers may cause its profile area to change in terms of depth and size. The objective of this study was to investigate the land use and land cover (LULC) changes and its impacts towards the soil stability on the sediment loading. Two satellite images Landsat 5 for year 1991 and Spot 5 for year 2010 were classified using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) which describe the land cover and land use change (LULC) within 20 years of time for the river sub-catchment. The study area was classified into seven categories on the basis of field study and remote sensing data. From the images, the land use alteration was dominated by palm oil with an increase of 16.84% and rubber plantation showed a declination of 31.29%. Meanwhile for land cover, cleared land area show the highest alteration with an increase of 22.63% while forest area showed declination with 18.68%. By using statistical methods, the trend analysis of suspended sediment was performed by One Way ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons test and the results showed that the suspended sediment concentration has increased by 10.07% (15.69 mg/L) from 1991 to 2010. This study shows that the conversion of forest and rubber areas to palm oil and urbanized area around the sub-catchment area have increased the sediment contribution to Sg. Padas, Beaufort.

KEYWORDS. Land use and land cover, sediment contribution, remote sensing and GIS


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ABSTRACT. There are several types of amplifier classes, and this includes the class E amplifier. The class E can achieve its efficiency up to 100%. This paper thus aims on getting the best model in estimating the power added efficiency of Class E power amplifier circuit using Silicon Carbide MESFET. Twelve models are obtained from three independent variables; DC current (Idc), drain voltage (Vdc), and power out (Pout). The original data set of 7 is generated to become 105 data samples (21 sets x 5 observations where each set with two missing observations) using the Jackknife sampling technique at the first stage (7C2). The power added efficiency model employs the Multiple Regression (MR) technique up to the second order of interactions. The best model is based on the eight selection criteria (8SC). The best model is found to be model M12.5.0, chosen from the six selected model).Efficiency factors affect the power added efficiency estimation are found to be X3(IDC) and X12(interaction between Pout and VDS).

KEYWORDS. Multiple Regression; Jackknife; interactions; Power Added Efficiency; Efficiency Factors.

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Aminatul Hawa Yahaya, Noraini Abdullah, & Zainodin H. J. 2012. Multiple Regression Models up to First-order Interaction on Hydrochemistry Properties. Asian Journal of
Mathematics and Statistics, 5 (4): 121-131.

Bameri, H, Hakimi, A., & Movahhdi, M. 2011. A Linear-high Range Output Power Control Technique for Cascade Power Amplifier. Microelectronics Journal, 42: 1025-1031.

Franco, M., & Katz, A. J. 2005. Class E Silicon Carbide VHF Power Amplifier. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ,  08628, USA.

Lucyszyn, S. 1997. Power-added Efficiency Errors with RF Power Amplifiers. International Journal of Electronics 82 (3): 303-312.

Lee, Y. S., & Jeong Y. H. 2007. A High-Efficiency Class-E Amplifier Using Sic MESFET. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 49 (6): 1447-1449.

Milosevic, D., Van Der Tang, J., & Van Roermun, A. 2002. Investigation on Technological Aspects of Class E RF Power Amplifier for UMTS Applications, in CiteSeerX.

Noraini Abdullah, Zainodin Haji Jubok, & Nigel Jonney J. B. 2008. Multiple Regression Models of the Volumetric Stem Biomass. WSEAS Transactions on Mathematics, 7 (7): 492-502.

Noraini Abdullah, Zainodin Haji Jubok, & Amran Ahmed. 2012. Sustainable Urban Forest Using Multiple Regression Models. Research Journal of Forestry, 6 (1):1-15.

Lind, D. A, Marchal, W. G., & Mason, R. D. 2005. Statistical Technique in Business and Economics, 11th Edn., McGraw-Hill Inc, New York, USA.

Quenouille, M. H. 1949. Problems in Plane Sampling. Annal of Mathematical Statistics, 20 (3): 355- 375. Power Added Efficiency Model for Mesfet Class E Power Amplifier using Jackknife Resampling 51

Stepan Lucyszyn, 1997. “Power-added Efficiency Errors with RF Power Amplifiers” . International Journal of Electronics, 82 (3): 303-312.

Soumya Shatakshi Panda & P.Manikandan. 2012. An Efficient And Power Optimized Cascode Stage RF Tuned Class-E Power Amplifier. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 10 (1): 1-6.

Tichelaar, B. W., & Ruff, L. J. 1989. How Good Are Our Best Models? Jackknifing, Bootstrapping, and Earthquake Depth. Eos, 70 (20): 593-606.

Zainodin, H. J, Noraini, A., & Yap, S. J. 2011. An Alternative Multicollinearity Approach in Solving Multiple Regression Problem. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 6 (11): 1241-1255