Jahimin Asik1, Fauziah Abdul Aziz2 and Razali Idris3
1School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
2Universiti Pertahanan Malaysia
3MARA University of Technology Perlis, Malaysia, 02600 Arau, Perlis

ABSTRACT. Cellulosic materials derived from three different types of local wood samples (sawmill woods sawdust, Acacia mangium and belian (Euxideroxilon zwagery) were extracted at atmospheric pressure using organosolv method. In an initial stage, the wood samples were delignified using peroxyacetic acid pulping to remove lignin. Then the pulp was bleached in 0.01 M solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with addition of 4% hydrogen peroxide of absolute dry pulp (ODP). Conversion to alpha-cellulose or mercerized cellulose was achieved by soaking bleached cellulosic materials in 17.5% solution of NaOH for 15 minutes at 25oC. The mercerized cellulose was thoroughly washed with large amount of distilled water until pH of the filtrate reached to natural, then vacuum dried at 60oC. From Scanning electron microscope (SEM) all mercerized woods cellulose were differ in microfibril size with high irregularity observed in sawmill sawdust. Formation of cellulose II was confirmed with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR) analysis. Preparation of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane was obtained by dissolving dry mercerized cellulose in molten 1 butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) in the presence of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) to produce a transparent solid gel film. All SPE membranes exhibit conductivity in the range of 3.6 x 10-6 to 5.7 x 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature. It was also observed that the conductivity of the SPE is affected by the size of cellulose microfibril and type of extraction. It was then further characterized with SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA.

KEYWORDS: Wood, Organosolv, Cellulose, mercerized, SPE, conductivity


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Collin G. Josepha*, S.M. Anisuzzamanb, Pak Yan Moha, E-W Amy Lima
aWater Research Unit, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
bChemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering,
University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +6 088 320000 ext. 2117; Fax: + 6 088 435324; e-mail:

ABSTRACT. A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from cut pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) via semi-carbonization followed by physical activation using a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method. The best AC was obtained by using a temperature of 700°C and 5 hours of carbonization period. The percentage yield decreased with increasing activation temperature, whereas the activation time did not have a significant effect on the yield. With a moisture content and ash content of less than 10% and 1% respectively, this material was suitable for AC production. The BET surface area was measured at 515.41 m2/g, with a Type I isotherm and an H4-type adsorption hysteresis loop concurring that the AC was a microporous solid with chemisorption properties.

KEYWORDS. Activated carbon (AC), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5- DCP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), physical activation


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1Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, 1Hassan Jamil, 1Mohd Noor Isa, 1Azhari Mohamed
2Sanudin Hj. Tahir, 2Baba Musta,
3Rene Forsberg, 3Arne Olesen, 3Emil Nielsen
4Abd Majid A Kadir, 4Ahmad Fahmi Abd Majid
5Kamaludin Talib, 5Saiful Aman Sulaiman
1Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 50578 Kuala Lumpur
2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400
Kota Kinabalu,Sabah
3National Space Institute, Denmark Technical University, Copenhagen, Denmark
4Info-Geomatik, 81300 Skudai, Johor
5Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor

ABSTRACT. Airborne gravimetry is an effective tool for mapping local gravity fields using a combination of airborne sensors, aircraft and positioning systems. It is suitable for gravity surveys over difficult terrains and areas mixed with land and ocean. This paper describes the geological mapping of Sabah using airborne gravity surveys. Airborne gravity data over land areas of Sabah has been combined with the marine airborne gravity data to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage in order to produce the geological mapping. Free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps (density 2.67 g/cm3) have been derived from the airborne data both as simple ad-hoc plots (at aircraft altitude), and as final plots from the downward continued airborne data, processed as part of the geoids determination. Data are gridded at 0.025 degree spacing which is about 2.7 km and the data resolution of the filtered airborne gravity data were 5-6 km. The airborne gravity survey database for land and marine areas has been compiled using ArcGIS geodatabase format in order to produce the update geological map of Sabah.

KEYWORDS. Airborne gravimetry, gravity field, ArcGIS, geological mapping,


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Rozaimi1* Zakaria, Abd Fatah2 Wahab, R.U. Gobithaasan2, Isfarita3 Ismail
1Faculty Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS),
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
2School of Informatics and Applie d Mathematics,
3Institute of Oceanography and Environment,
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia.
Corresponding author’s email: (Tel: 088-320000 ext: 5628,Fax: 088-320223)

ABSTRACT. This paper introduces fuzzy interpolation rational bicubic Bezier surface (later known as FIRBBS) which can be used to model the fuzzy data forms after defining uncertainty data by using fuzzy set theory. The construction of FIRBBS is based on the definition of fuzzy number concept since we dealing with the real uncertainty  data form and interpolation rational bicubic Bezier surface model. Then, in order to obtain the crisp fuzzy solution, we applied the alpha-cut operation of triangular fuzzy number to reduce the fuzzy interval among those fuzzy data points(FDPs). After that, we applied defuzzification method to give us the final solution of getting single surface which also knows as crisp fuzzy solution surface. The practical example also is given which represented by figures for each processes. This practical example take the fuzzy data of lakebed modeling based on uncertainty at z-axis(depth).

KEYWORD. Fuzzy number, rational bicubic Bezier surface, interpolation, alpha-cut, defuzzification.


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Azmizam Manie @ Mani *, Saafie Salleh, Fuei Pien Chee, Afishah Alias & Saturi Baco
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Corresponding author:; Tel: +6 014 874 1296

ABSTRACT. This paper described the fabrication of Zinc Oxide (ZnO)-Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) heterojunction thin films using RF-powered Magnetron Sputtering System. The deposition parameters were controlled to produce the films with the thicknesses in the range of 100 nm to 500 nm. During deposition, the RF power and the argon flow are fixed at 100 Watt and 10 sccm, respectively. Structural and optical properties were studied by X-Ray Diffraction Method and UV-VIS Spectrometer. The electrical properties were studied by IV SourceMeter. The grain sizes of both thin films increasing while the thickness increase. The band gap of ZnO thin films range from 3.25 eV -3.27 eV and for Cu2O thin films range from 2.00 eV – 2.15 e V. All Cu2O/ZnO thin films show ideal diode properties.

KEYWORDS: ZnO, Cu2O, thin film, heterojunction device


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Volume 37, Issue 1 (Full Volume)

Extraction Of 4H-Pyran-4-One, 2,3-Dihydro-3,5-Dihydroxy-6-Methyl-, An Alternative Antifungal Agent, From Schizophyllum commune: Optimization And Kinetic Study
Yi Peng, Teoh and Mashitah, Mat Don

Biomonitoring of Streams: Using Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in Responses to the Different Types of Land Use at Tabin Wildlife Reserve (TWR), Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia
-  Arman Hadi Fikri, Audrey Ang Chii Shian, Sahana Harun &
Kueh Boon Hee

In Vitro Bioactivities and Phytochemicals Content of Vegetables from Sabah, Malaysia
- Jualang A. G., Adznila E., How S. E.

Chemical and Microbial Evaluation of Some Uncommon Indigenous Fruits and Nuts
- Ogwu, M. C., Osawaru, M. E. and Atsenokhai, E. I.

Growth and Yield Analysis of Sungkai (Peronema canescens Jack.) in Kalimantan, Indonesia
- Wahyudi, A. R Mojiol, Z. Muttaqin

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Yi Peng Teoh1,2* and Mashitah Mat Don1

1School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang
Perai South, Penang, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), P.O Box 77,
D/A Pejabat Pos Besar, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia

ABSTRACT. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (DDMP) was believed as a promising alternative in term antifungal activity towards fungal attack in rubberwood. Solid-liquid extraction is performed from basidiomycetes fungus Schizophyllum commune in methanol-water solvent, in order to obtain valuable antifungal agent. Statistical optimization was employed to optimize the extraction condition for maximal total flavonoid content (TFC) and DDMP productivity. The optimum conditions were 70.75% (v/v) methanol, 29 °C, and 145 rpm. The optimization studies were verified and the experimental data fitted well to the selected models with error percentage less than 1%. The extraction kinetics was then investigated using Parabolic diffusion model, Power law model, Peleg’s model, and Elovich’s model. All empirical models gave a good fit to the experimental data (R2 > 0.9), in which the Power law model having the highest R2 and lowest RMSD values.

KEYWORDS. Schizophyllum commune; total flavonoid content (TFC); 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3- dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (DDMP); optimization; extraction kinetics



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  • Chan, S.W., Lee, C.Y., Yap, C.F., Wan Aida, W.M. & Ho, C.W. 2009. Optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. International Food Research Journal 16(2): 203-213.
  • Das K, Tiwari RKS. & Shrivastava DK. 2010. Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: current methods and future trend. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(2): 104-111.
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  • Guo, C.Y., Wang, J., Hou, Y., Zhao, Y.M., Shen, L.X. & Zhang, D.S. 2013. Orthogonal test design for optimizing the extraction of total flavonoids from Inula helenium. Pharmacognosy Magazine 9(35): 192-195.
  • Karacabey, E., Bayindirli, L., Artik, N. & Mazza, G. 2013. Modeling solid-liquid extraction of trans-Resveratrol and trans-Ɛ-Viniferin from grape cane. Journal of Food Process Engineering 36(1): 103-112.
  • Kaymak-Ertekin, F. & Gedik, A. 2004. Sorption isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption for grapes, apricots, apples and potatoes. Food Science and Technology 37(4): 429-438.
  • Kitanovic, S., Milenovic, D. & Veljkovic, V.B. 2008. Empirical kinetic models for the resinoid extraction from aerial parts of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). Biochemical Engineering Journal 41(1): 1-11.
  • Ncube, N.S., Afolayan A.J. & Okoh, A.I. 2008. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(12): 1797-1806.
  • Ordonez, A.A.L., Gomez, J.D., Vattuone, M.A. & Isla, M.I. 2006. Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz extracts. Food Chemistry 97(3): 452-458.
  • Paterson, I.F., Chowdhry, B.Z. & Leharne, S.A. 1999. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon extraction from a coal tar-contaminated soil using aqueous solutions of non-ionic surfactants. Chemosphere 38(13): 3095-3107.
  • Slana, M., Zigon, D., Makovec, T. & Lenasi, H. 2011. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigiricans to flavonoids. Journal of Basic Microbiology 51: 433-441.
  • Sparks, D.L. 1999. Soil physical chemistry, 2nd Ed. CRC Press, US.
  • Sturzoiu, A., Stroescu, M., Guzun, A.S. & Dobre, T. 2011. Empirical models applied for kinetics extraction of β-carotene from Rosa canina. Revista de Chimie 62(3): 344-348.
  • Teoh, Y.P., Mashitah, M.D. & Ujang, S. 2012. Nutrient improvement using statistical optimization for growth ofSchizophyllum commune, and its antifungal activity against wood degrading fungi of rubberwood. Biotechnology Progress 28(1): 232-241.
  • Teoh, Y.P. & Mashitah, M.D. 2013. In-vitro antifungal properties and phytochemical analysis of filamentous white-rot fungi, Schizophyllum commune. Sains Malaysiana 42(9):
  • Tiwari, P., Kumar, B., Kaur, M., Kaur, G. & Kaur, H. 2011. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. International Pharmaceutical Science 1(1): 98-106.
  • Uma, D.B., Ho, C.W. & Wan Aida, W.M. 2010. Optimization of extraction parameters of total phenolic compounds from Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves. Sains Malaysiana 39(1): 119-128.

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Arman Hadi Fikri, Audrey Ang Chii Shian, Sahana Harun & Kueh Boon Hee

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ITBC)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS),
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT. A preliminary study on three aquatic insect orders, namely Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly), and Trichoptera (caddisfly) (EPT) was conducted at Tabin Wildlife Reserve (TWR), Lahad Datu, Sabah in January and February 2015. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the composition of EPT along a stream at TWR, (ii) the distribution of EPT in each different land use at TWR, and (iii) the relationship between EPT communities and the water quality of the stream at TWR. Kick net sampling technique was used for collecting the EPT communities along Sg. Lipad of TWR. The most dominant order was Ephemeroptera consisting of 11 families with 1,354 individuals out of the total of 1,724 individuals and 26 families of EPT communities sampled. Trichoptera was the second most abundant order with nine families and 258 individuals, and lastly, Plecoptera with only six families and 112 individuals. There were more families of EPT communities distributed in secondary forest as compared to the oil palm plantation. Several exclusive families were found
in secondary forest, while only one family was found in oil palm plantation. The habitat run showed the highest in abundance of EPT, while pool recorded the least in abundance. Four biotic indices (BMWP, ASPT, FBI, and INWQS) and a few physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, conductivity, and DO) were used in this study to determine the water quality of the sampling location. Based on the biotic indices and physico-chemical parameters, the status of water in Sg. Lipad was in excellent condition. The two water quality tests showed profound consistency. This serves as a confirmation that the EPT communities are effective to be used as a biomonitoring tool at TWR.

KEYWORDS. Aquatic insects EPT physico-chemical parameters biomonitoring Sg. Lipad Tabin


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Jualang A. G.*, Adznila E., How S. E.

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding e-mail:

ABSTRACT. This study aims to investigate potential of vegetables from Sabah with valueadded benefits in nutraceuticals. Fifty-five samples of vegetables were collected from local market and tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH• assay. Four species with high DPPH• scavenging activity (>80%) which are Cosmos caudatus, Eryngium foetidum, Ipomoea batatas and Manihot esculenta Crantz were selected and subjected to different solvents extraction and tested to different scavenging assays (DPPH•, O2• and NO•), protein kinasephosphatase assay (GSK-3β, MKK1, and MSG5) and antibacterial tests. Ethanol extract of I. batatas (90.56%), boiled water extract of M. esculenta Crantz (62.77%) and extractable polyphenol extract of E. foetidum (50.93%) exhibits comparable scavenging activities to catechin for DPPH•, O2• and NO•, respectively. Polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and proanthocynidins are detected in all extracts at concentration between 0.001 mg/g to 0.52 mg/g. The highest total polyphenols content (0.40±0.01 mg GAE/g), total phenolics content (0.52±0.01 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids content (0.13±0.01 mg CE/g) and total proanthocyanidins content (0.12±0 mg CE/g) were obtained in extractable polyphenols of Cosmos caudatus. No extracts were observed as inhibitor for GSK-3β, MKK1 and MSG5. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.0 mm to 12.3 mm) was only obtained in extractable polyphenols and ethanol extracts. Extractable polyphenols of E. foetidum exhibit the largest inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.3 mm).

KEYWORDS. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Antikinases, Antiphosphatases, Cosmos caudatus, Eryngium foetidum, Ipomoea batatas, Manihot esculenta



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*1,2Ogwu, M. C., 1Osawaru, M. E. and 1Atsenokhai, E. I.

1Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of
Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Keimyung University, Center for International Education and Development, 1095
Dalgubeol – Daero, Daegu, South Korea
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT. Fruits and nuts are essential components of animal and human diets and desert. They represent diverse genetic resources in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Nigeria, exotic fruits are more popular as indigenous ones are largely underutilized. This study examined the chemical components of five uncommon fruits: African oil bean [Pentaclathra macrophylla, Fabaceae], Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranean, Fabaceae], African bush mango [Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingiaceae], African pear [Dacryodes edulis, Burseraceae] and Nigerian walnut [Tetracarpidium conophorum, Euphorbiaceae]. The fresh fruits/nuts were collected from parts of Edo State, Southern Nigeria. Results showed that alkaloid was present in fresh and cooked samples of walnut and pear, and only present in fresh samples of P. macrophylla and V. subterranean. Alkaloid was absent in both fresh and cooked I. gaborensis. The result of mineral composition of the samples suggests highest calcium, potassium and magnesium content was obtained in African pear and P. macrophylla for sodium, zinc and iron. Presence of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and lactic acid was confirmed in all the fruits. The highest concentration of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and lactic acid was obtained from I. gaborensis, V. subterranean, P. macrophylla and D. edulis respectively. The highest bacterial and fungal count in fresh samples was from Bambara groundnut and P. macrophylla respectively. This study has
implicated the relevance of these uncommon fruits and nuts. It is recommended therefore that their awareness should be improved in order to sustain their marketability and food use.

KEYWORDS. Tropical fruits and nuts, Underutilized fruits, Plant genetic resources, Vegetables, Phytochemicals, Nigeria


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Growth and Yield Analysis of Sungkai (Peronema canescens Jack.) in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Wahyudi 1, A. R Mojiol 2, Z. Muttaqin 3

1Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University, Palangka Raya,
Indonesia (
2Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University of Malaysia,
Sabah, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Forestry, Nusa Bangsa University, Bogor, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT. Sungkai (Peronema canescens) is a local commercial tree (native species) that has the potential to be developed as a plantation forest and agroforestry estate. This study aims to determine the percentage of survivality, productivity, optimum cutting cycle, and financial benefits of the Sungkai tree. The study was conducted in the people plantation, Kapuas district, Central Kalimantan Province. The research took the growth parameter of Sungkai which was grown since the year 2001 to 2013 in areas with the ultisol soil type. Data analysis has been using the average value of diameter, height and volume, annual increment (annual), the regression equation of NPV, BCR and IRR. The results showed that in 12 years the percentage of Sungkai survivality reached 89.7%, with an annual increase of 14.10 m3 ha-1 year-1 and a density of 997 trees ha-1. The Equation modelling of Sungkai plantation is y = 2.073 + 1.6623x – 0.0165×2 (R2 = 84.05%). At the level of loan interest of 9% per year, Sungkai have an economic harvest cycle of 15 years with NPV Rp. 58.49 million ha-1, BCR: 7.64 and IRR: 11.75%. Whereas, when the loan interest rate of 6% and 12% per annum, then the cutting cycle of 15 years, the NPV are to Rp. 92.65 million ha-1 and Rp. 36.6 million ha-1 respectively. In this study, Sungkai tree are very suitable to be developed in agroforestry and to increase the productivity of land such as shifting cultivation area, scrubland and low potential forest areas which were widespread, especially in Kalimantan, Borneo.


KEYWORDS. Sungkai, Growth and yield, mean annual increment, Peronema canescens, and economic cutting cycle, Kalimantan


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Volume 36, Issue 2 (Full Volume)



Autonomous Tawaf Crowd Simulation
Ahmad Zakwan Azizul Fata, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Sarudin Kari (p.1)

Fuzzy Soft Shadow in Augmented Reality System
- Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail & Mahyar Kolivand (p.8)
Primitives Penetration Depth Computation using Dynamic Pivot Point Technique
Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman & Abdullah Bade (p.19)
Hybrid Federated Data Warehouse Integration Model: Implementation in Mud Crabs Case Study
- Mustafa Man, W. Aezwani W.A. Bakar, Noraida Hj. Ali & Masita Abd. Jalil (p.28)

Part-Body Detection Framework for People Detection using Sliced HOG Descriptors
- Ahmad Sani, Mohd Daud Kasmuni, Mahardhika Candra Prasetyahadi, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim & Mohd Shahrizal Sunar (p.39)


Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

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If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.


Ahmad Zakwan Azizul Fata, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Sarudin Kari

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innonovation Centre of Excellence
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Johor, Malaysia,,

ABSTRACT. One of the most famous approaches to simulate a large density crowd is by applying the social force model. This model can be successfully used to simulate agents’ movement in real-world scenarios realistically. Nevertheless, this is very simple and not suitable to simulate a complex pedestrian flow movement. Hence, this research proposes a new novel model for simulating the pilgrims’ movements circling the Kaabah (Tawaf). These rituals are complex yet unique, due to its capacity, density, and various demographics backgrounds of the agents (pilgrims). It also had a certain set of rules and regulations that must be followed by the agents. Due to these rules, the Tawafcan introduce irregularities in the motion flow around the Kaabah. In order to make the simulation realistically, each agent will be assigned with different attributes such as; age, gender and intention outlook. The three parameters mentioned above, are the main problems that need to be solved in this research in order to simulate a better crowd simulation than previous studies. The findings of this research will contribute greatly for Hajj management in term of controlling and optimizing the flow of pilgrims during Tawaf especially in the Hajj season.

KEYWORDS. Autonomous Agents; Crowd Simulation; Hajj.



  • Curtis S., Zafar B., Guy S. J. & Manocha D. 2011. Virtual Tawaf: A Case Study in Simulating the Behavior of Dense, Heterogeneous Crowds. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops) 2011.
  • Hughes, R., Ondrej, J. & Dingliana, J. 2014. Holonomic Collision Avoidance for Virtual Crowds. Proceedings of the Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation 2014, pp. 1–8.
  • Sarmady S., Haron F. & Talib A. Z. 2011. A cellular automata model for circular movements of pedestrians during Tawaf. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. Elsevier.
  • Zainuddin Z., Thinakaran K. & Abu-Sulyman I. M. 2010. Simulating the Circumambulation of the Ka’aba using SimWalk. European Journal of Scientific Research, 38(3): 454-464.

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Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail, Mahyar Kolivand

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innovation Centre of Excellence)
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Realistic soft shadows in Augmented Reality (AR) is a fascinating topic in computer graphics. Many researchers are involved to have a significant improvement on this demand. In this paper, we have presented a new technique to produce soft shadows using one of the well-known methods in mathematics called Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic is taken into account to generate the realistic soft shadows in AR. The wide light source is split into some parts that each of them plays the rule of a single light source. The desired soft shadow is generated by splitting the wide light source into multiple parts and considering each part as a single light source. The method which we called Fuzzy Soft Shadow is employed in AR to enhance the quality of semi-soft shadows and soft shadows.

KEYWORDS. Soft Shadows, Augmented Reality, Fuzzy logic



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  • Kolivand, H. & Sunar, M. 2013b. Covering photometric properties of outdoor components with the effects of sky color in mixed reality. Multimedia Tools and Applications, pp.1–20.
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Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman1*, Abdullah Bade2

1Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT. Computing penetration depth between two or more polygons commonly described by most researchers as one of the high computational cost process. Major implementation required numbers of pre-processing function just to find the minimum penetrating depth between those penetrated objects or polygons. In this paper, we proposed a technique that manipulates the advantages of Dynamic Pivot Point into computing penetration depth between two or more objects. Comparing our proposed technique (DyOP-PD) with the well-known Lin-Canny technique, the conducted experiments proved that our proposed technique has achieved better efficiency. Overall time for DyOP-PD technique to compute penetration depth was significantly faster than the Lin-Canny PD technique (refer Figure 6.9). Our technique was faster than the prominent technique where the computational time significantly reduced, solved a larger fraction of problems, and produced better paths of penetration depth. The lowest results recorded from our simulation was in average at 10.22 milliseconds for DyOP PD and 21.33 milliseconds for Lin-Canny PD technique. The findings proved that DyOP-PD technique is robust to handle efficient, nearly accurate, and fast penetration depth detection compared to Lin-Canny-PD technique.

KEYWORDS. Collision detection, penetration depth, virtual environment



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  • Redon, S., Kheddar, A. & Coquillart. S., 2002. Fast Continuous Collision Detection between Rigid Bodies. Computer Graphics Forum, 21: 279-287.
  • Shengzheng, W. & Jie, Y. 2009. Efficient Collision Detection for Soft Tissue Simulation In A Surgical Planning System. Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics, 2009. CAD/Graphics ’09. 11th IEEE International Conference on, 49-53.
  • Stephane, R. & Lin, M. C. 2006. A Fast Method for Local Penetration Depth Computation. Journal of Graphics Tools.
  • Sulaiman, H. A., Othman, M. A., Ismail, M. M, Misran, M. H., Said, M. A., B. M., Ramlee, R. A. 2013. Quad Separation Algorithm for Bounding-Volume Hierarchies Construction In Virtual
  • Environment Application. Journal of Next Generation Information Technology, 4: 63-73
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  • Zhang, X., Kim, Y. J. & Manocha, D. 2014. Continuous Penetration Depth. Computer-Aided Design, 46: 3-13

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Mustafa Man, W. Aezwani W.A. Bakar, Noraida Hj. Ali and Masita Abd. Jalil

Department of Computer Science
School of Informatics and Applied Mathematics
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.,,,

ABSTRACT. Data integration is considered as one of the hot issues to be solved especially in integrating unstructured data with multiple types and formats. This paper introduces a new model for integrating multiple types of heterogeneous data applying to mud crabs case study in Setiu Wetland (SW). The Hybrid Federated Data Warehouse (HyFeDWare) model combines two approaches which are Data Warehouse and Federated Database. Simulation result shows that the processing time for integration of unstructured biodiversity data of mud crabs are lesser than 2 seconds for 12 rows of 7 MB data. This model generally could be used to integrate any types and format of data in distributed environment.

KEYWORDS. Data Integration, Data Warehouse, Federated database, Distributed Environment.



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Ahmad Sani, Mohd Daud Kasmuni, Mahardhika Candra Prasetyahadi, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim and Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Faculty of Computing
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 Skudai, Johor-Malaysia

ABSTRACT. We investigate the possibility for using portions of Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptors in a part- based people detection framework. Instead of extracting descriptors from isolated or pre-cropped human parts, we slice the extracted HOG descriptor from whole windows into four, one slice per one human part. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used for classifying the slices and the outcome detections are handled by a finite-state machine where three detected parts means that one assumed person is in the window being scanned. Experiments were conducted for our detection framework and another conventional one that uses whole HOG descriptors using images from the INRIA Person Dataset, in which our framework achieved better; detecting 46/50 of occluded people comparing to 36/50 for the conventional framework. Moreover, we achieved less false positive detections of 80 windows comparing to 289 for the conventional framework.

KEYWORDS. People detection; object detection; histograms of oriented gradients; partbased detection framework



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Volume 36, Issue 1 (Full Volume)


Assesment of Toxicity Level in Selected Heavy Metal in Volcanic Soils from Tawau, Sabah
– Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta (p.1)

Geomechanical Classification Scheme for Heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
– Ismail Abd Rahim (p.12)

Morphologies Changes during Pre- and Post- Southwest Season in Mantanani Besar Island, Kota Belud, Sabah
– Russsel Felix Koiting, Ejria Saleh, John Madin, Than Aung & Fazliana Mustajap (p. 21)

The Fruit Bats (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae) From Bawakareng Mountain, South Sulawesi
– Ellena Yusti, Ibnu Maryanto & Bambang Suryobroto (p.33)

Classification and Quantification of Marine Debris at Teluk Likas, Sabah
– Farrah Anis Fazliatul Adnan, Rudy Kilip, Dazvieo Keniin & Carolyn Payus (p.44)

Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

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If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.


Mohamed Ali Yusof Mohd Husin*, Hennie Fitria W. Soehady Erfen & Baba Musta

Faculty of Science & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*E-mail address:

ABSTRACT. Heavy metals are one of the serious pollutants in environment because its toxicity. Severe concentration of heavy metals can harm the plants, animals and even human. During the pedogenesis process, heavy metals from the parent rock are mobilized in soils and redistribute in to the environment. The objective of this paper is to study the concentration and toxicity level of selected heavy metals in volcanic soils around Tawau, Sabah. In this study 10 soil samples were collected from different sampling stations. The selection of soil
samples were based on the different type of volcanic rocks in the study area. The determination of concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were carried out using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The result shows, the highest concentration is chromium with the average of 141 ppm followed by zinc with 112 ppm. The concentration of copper is 49 ppm, nickel 15 ppm, lead 8 ppm and arsenic 7 ppm. The soil samples is identified as polluted due to the elevated concentration of certain heavy metals when compared with the Sediment Quality Guidelines of US EPA. Chromium is regarded as heavily polluted agent while zinc, copper and arsenic indicated that the area is moderately polluted. Nickel and lead average concentration show no indication of pollution in the area. It is concluded that the combined source of heavy metals in the study area would be the parent materials of the soils and other anthropogenic effluent. From the study also, it is found out that pH value, organic matter and clay percentage has influenced the heavy metal concentration in volcanic soil in the study area.

KEYWORDS.  Heavy Metals, Tawau, Volcanic Soils, XRF.



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Ismail Abd Rahim
Natural Disasters Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti
Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Phone: 088 320000 (5734/5999)
Fax: 088 435324

. Geomechanical classification scheme for heterogeneous Crocker Formation in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah has been proposed in 2009 and known as Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR). M-SMR was used to characterize and to propose preliminary rock cut slope design such as slope stabilization and protection measures and recommendation levels for design model review and slope remapping by suitable engineering geologist or geotechnical
engineers. The ‘Lithological unit thickness’ approach, RQD method, weighted average of discontinuity set spacing, weighted average, statistical mode and new approach of adjustment factor (NAAF) methods were used to evaluate the parameters in M-SMR. The classes in MSMR scheme consists of class I (very good) to class VI (extremely bad). Local trimming, slope re-profiling, weep hole, horizontal drainage, concrete dentition or buttress, rock bolting or dowel, wire mesh or rope nets, reinforce shotcrete and benching are proposed slope stabilization and protection measures. Normal to detailed Design Model Review (DMR) and slope remapping are recommended to highly recommended by engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers to expert engineering geologist or geotechnical engineers for class I to class VI, respectively.

KEYWORDS: Geomechanical classification, Modified Slope Mass Rating (M-SMR), Crocker Formation, Kota Kinabalu, slope design.


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