VOLUME 38, Issue 1

List Of Papers
Paul Njenga Waithaka1*, Francis B. Mwaura1, John M. Wagacha1, Eliud M. Gathuru2, Francis M. Ngumbu2 and Anderson K. Mwangi2

Julyus-Melvin Mobilik1,*, Teck-Yee Ling1Mohd-Lokman Bin Husain2, & Ruhana Hassan1

Emily A. Gilbert, Jephte Sompud*, Cynthia B. Sompud

Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud*, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert

Zulherry Isnain1, *Junaidi Asis1, Hazerina Pungut2, Sanudin Tahir2, Baba Musta1 & Hardianshah Saleh2


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Paul Njenga Waithaka1*, Francis B. Mwaura1, John M. Wagacha1, Eliud M. Gathuru2, Francis M. Ngumbu2 and Anderson K. Mwangi2
1University of Nairobi, school of biological sciences, P. O. Box, 30197-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
2Egerton University, Department of biological sciences, P. O. Box, 536 Njoro, Kenya
Corresponding author; Paul Njenga Waithaka, Cell; +254 721104637, Email; waithakanj@gmail.com, waithakanj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT A total of 98 soil samples collected from Menengai geothermal site located in Nakuru, Kenya were analyzed for their chemical and microbial components. In region A, phosphorus, sodium, nitrogen and carbon were deficient, region B and C, phosphorus and manganese while in while in D the deficient minerals were phosphorus, sodium, nitrogen and carbon. Toxic minerals were calcium and magnesium in regions A, B, C and D. The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli with a mean of (3.35×107) while the least were Bacillus sp. (1.40×105). Among the fungi, the most dominant were Aspergillus nomius with a mean of 4.42x 104 with the least been Panicillium sacculum (8.09×103). As much as geothermal exploration is important in boosting the country’s energy reserves, there is need to rehabilitate the caldera so as to restore the microbial composition of the region.

Keywords: diversity, crater, geothermal, Menengai, microbial, chemical



  • Abdullah M. Al-Dhabaan, K. and Ali H. (2016). Identification of contaminated soil from isolated fungi in Riyadh province. Life Science Journal, 13(2): 123-128.
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  • Commichau, F. M., Pietack, N. and Stu¨ lke, J. (2013). Essential genes in Bacillus subtilis: a re-evaluation after ten years. Molecular Biosystems, 9: 1068–1075. Das, M. and Anitha, S. (2011). Mycoremediatio of moocrotophos, International Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1): 337-342.
  • Dhiva, S., Jaishanker Pillai, H.P. and Shinde, V. M. (2016). Isolation and characterization of soil microorganisms for potential biocontrol activity. Internatinoal Journal of Current Research in Biological Sciences, 3(3): 26-29.
  • Egejuru, A. L., Alessandro, W. D., Tagliavia, M., Parello, F. and Quatrini, P. (2014). Methanotrophic activity and diversity of methanotrophs in volcanic geothermal soils at Pantelleria (Italy). Journal of Biogeosciences, 11: 5865–5875.
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  • Galperin, M. Y., Mekhedov, S. L., Puigbo, P., Smirnov, S., Wolf, Y. I. and Rigden, D. J. (2012). Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes. Journal of Environmental Microbiology, 14: 2870–2890.
  • Guo, Y., Fujimura, R., Sato, Y, Suda, W., Kim, S., Oshima, K., Hattori, M., Kamijo, T., Narisawa, K. and Ohta, K. (2014). Characterization of Early Microbial Communities on Volcanic Deposits along a Vegetation Gradient on the Island of Miyake, Japan. Journal of Microbes in the Environment, 29 (1):38-49.
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  • Paul Njenga Waithaka, Francis B. Mwaura, John M. Wagacha, Eliud M. Gathuru, Francis M. Ngaumbu and Anderson K. Mwangi Ramanadevi, V., Naik, L. S. and Aruna, K. (2013). Isolation and Biochemical characterization of protease isolated from Bacillus sp SVN12. International Journal of Research in Pure and Applied Microbiology, 3(3): 94-101.
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  • Sharma, N., Vyas, G. and Pathania, S. (2013). Culturable diversity of thermophilic microorganisms found in hot springs of northern Himalayas and to explore their potential for production of industrially important enzymes. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences 1: 165-178.
  • Sunita, D. and Kanwar, S. (2016). Deciphering the diversity of aerobic culturable thermophiles in hot springs of Manikaran, Himachal Pradesh. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 6(1): 156-162.
  • Umar, M., Akafyi, D., Abdulkarim, I., Yaya, A. A., and Danasabe, Y. (2015). International Journal of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 4(10): 063-066.
  • Umar, M., Yaya, A. A., Yusuf, G., Tafinta, I.Y., Aliko, A.A., Jobbi, D.Y. and Lawal, G. (2016). Biochemical characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility trends of Proteus mirabilis isolated from patients suspected with urinary tract infections attending Sickbay Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. Annals of Biological Sciences, 4(2):1-8.
  • Waithaka, P. N, Muthini M. J. and Kebira A. K. (2015). Physico-chemical Analysis, Microbial Isolation, Sensitivity Test of the Isolates and Solar Disinfection of Water Running in Community Taps and River Kandutura in Nakuru North Sub-county, Kenya. The Open Microbiology Journal, 9: 117-124.

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Julyus-Melvin Mobilik1,*, Teck-Yee Ling1,

Mohd-Lokman Bin Husain2, & Ruhana Hassan1
1Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
2Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

*Email: julyus.mobilik@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans, but their specific sources, quantities and distribution remains inconclusive. Although the threat from marine debris pollution has beginning to be recognized in Malaysia, comprehensive studies are still lacking to document the pollution. This study adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey to assess the type, amount and sources of debris on a one kilometer section in Tg. Aru and Kosuhoi beaches, Sabah, during surveys in December 2012 (northeast monsoon, NEM), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon, IM) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon, SWM). The mean total debris items was 1,220±532 item/km and weighing at 52.8±17.2 kg/km, where, Kosuhoi beach (1,241 item/km or 57 kg/km) received substantially greater quantities of debris compared to Tg. Aru beach (1,199 item/km or 48 kg/km). Total debris items was more abundant during SWM (1,789 item/km) compared to NEM (1,139 item/km) and IM (733 item/km) seasons. Plastic category objects were the most numerous amounting to 1,057 item/km (86.64%) in total debris items. Clear plastic bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, colored plastic bottles and cups were the most abundant objects collected which they contributed 606 item/km (49.69%) from the total debris item collected. The main source of debris objects abundance was from common source which contributed 52% from the total debris objects, whereas, those from terrestrial and marine sources contributed 32% and 16% respectively.  The high percentage of terrestrial and common sources debris requires marine environment stakeholders to diversify their approach and priority in mitigating this alarming result especially during SWM period. Awareness program is an effective preventive measure that should be continued and intensified. However, the program should focus on target group to ensure the awareness effectiveness to reduce if not totally eliminate the debris in the marine environment.

KEYWORDS. Beach pollution, plastic, monsoon seasons, marine debris source, Sabah



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Emily A. Gilbert, Jephte Sompud*, Cynthia B. Sompud
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 44800 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
E-mail: jefty2003@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. This review addresses the impacts of the noise, the vital role of acoustic communication and the response of the bird in overcoming the increased anthropogenic noise. The rapid development human activities nowadays induce the noise that interrupt the acoustic communication of birds. Disturbance of the signals transmission causes detrimental impact on the birds as they are highly depending on the acoustic communication for their survival, territory defense and reproduction. Continuous exposure of the noise then results in the declination of species richness of which have been stated by several past studies. Although most of the studies stated that the negative impact as a consequences from the anthropogenic noise, however there is positive effect contributed by the noise of which are also recorded in other studies. Moreover, the impacts other variables such as vegetation density that cause major changes to the bird population as compared to noise have also been highlighted in several studies. This indicates that considering several influencing factor is important in measuring impact that leads to the changes that occur within the bird population. Thus, in depth studies on the impacts of anthropogenic noise towards the species of birds by taking into account other contributing variables is important to enable the noise management to be conducted effectively especially in development areas as way in conserving the biodiversity of the bird population.

KEYWORDS. Anthropogenic noise, avian community, bird’s population, acoustic communication



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Kee Sze Lue, Jephte Sompud*, Lee Woon Jah, Cynthia Boon Sompud, Emily Gilbert
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
E-mail: jefty2003@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. Large areas of tropical forest worldwide have been converted rapidly into forest plantation. Plantation can play an important role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability, and biological diversity to degraded tropical lands. However, the conversion of forest areas to plantation rapidly resulting birds to lose their natural habitat. Therefore, Acacia mangium plantations have the potential as the refuges for birds. As such, this study was conducted to investigate the bird population in 2-year Acacia mangium plantation, Sabah Forest Industries (SFI), Sabah to determine the bird population density and diversity of 2 year mangium plantation in SFI. There is no published information of the detailed status of bird in SFI yet. Bird survey was done by using point count method. The bird population density was analyzed by using distance 6.2 and bird diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index. A total of 343 birds belong to 53 species from 21 families were detected. The bird population in 2-year mangium plantation was 17.71 individual per hectare and Shannon-Wiener diversity index for bird diversity was 3.24. This study shows that the bird population density and diversity in SFI were higher as compared to other past studies in Borneo plantation area.

KEYWORDS. Forest plantation, population density, bird diversity, Acacia mangium,  Sabah



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Zulherry Isnain1, *Junaidi Asis1, Hazerina Pungut2, Sanudin Tahir2, Baba Musta1 & Hardianshah Saleh2
1Small Island Research Centre (SRIC)
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources (FSSA)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)

2Geology Programme
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources (FSSA)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)

ABSTRACT A research has been conducted at Silam Coast Conservation Area (SCCA) to evaluate the geotourism potential of the geological heritage resources. The study area is located at Silam, Lahad Datu, in the eastern part of Sabah. The SCCA and surrounding area were made up of igneous and sedimentary rocks of ultramafic, gabbro, amphibolite, basaltic dykes, plagiogranites and basaltic rocks capped by red radiolarian chert. It is also known as the Darvel Bay Ophiolite Complex which represents the ophiolitic sequence of oceanic crust that formed during Jurassic to Cretaceous around 150-80 million years ago.  In SCCA area, only pillow basalt, lava basalt, chert and minor occurrence of basalt dyke were present. Mid-Miocene tectonic event deformed and uplifted the rock unit. SCCA is a coastal area which also covers few small islands namely Tabun Island and Saranga Island to the northeast of the conservation area in Darvel Bay. The geomorphology and geologic features contribute to the aesthetic values of the area that enhances the scientific values. Two potential geosites have been identified which are Tabun-Saranga islands and Pandanus-Ara beaches that hold unique features of remnant cliff, wave-cut cliff, faults, caves, stacks, tafoni, headland, pocket beach, colluvial beach deposit and remnant of raised coral colonies. Development of this geosites could lead to conservation for sustaining the geological heritage resources as well as contributing to the state’s economy and tourism industry.

Keywords: Geotourism, Silam Coast Conservation Area, SCCA, Tabun,Island, Saranga Island



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Volume 37, Issue 2 (Full)

Fuzzy Interpolation Rational Bicubic Bezier Surface
- Rozaimi Zakaria, Abd Fatah Wahab, R.U. Gobithaasan, Isfarita Ismail

Geological Mapping of Sabah, Malaysia, Using Airborne Gravity Survey
- Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, Hassan Jamil, Mohd Noor Isa, Azhari Mohamed, Sanudin Hj. Tahir, Baba Musta, Rene Forsberg, Arne Olesen, Emil Nielsen, Abd Majid A Kadir, Ahmad Fahmi Abd Majid, Kamaludin Talib, Saiful Aman Sulaiman

Sorption and Characterization Studies of Activated Carbon Prepared from Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
- Collin G. Joseph, S.M. Anisuzzaman, Pak Yan Moh, E-W Amy Lim

Fabrication and Characterization of Cu2O/ZnO Thin Films for pn Heterojunction Devices
- Azmizam Manie@mani, Saafie Salleh, Fuei Pien Chee, Afisah Alias, Saturi Baco

Mercerized Natural Cellulose Based-Solid Polymer Electrolyte
-Jahimin Asik, Fauziah Abdul Aziz, Razali Idris


Jahimin Asik1, Fauziah Abdul Aziz2 and Razali Idris3
1School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
Email: jthan@ums.edu.my
2Universiti Pertahanan Malaysia
Email: afuziah@upnm.edu.my
3MARA University of Technology Perlis, Malaysia, 02600 Arau, Perlis

ABSTRACT. Cellulosic materials derived from three different types of local wood samples (sawmill woods sawdust, Acacia mangium and belian (Euxideroxilon zwagery) were extracted at atmospheric pressure using organosolv method. In an initial stage, the wood samples were delignified using peroxyacetic acid pulping to remove lignin. Then the pulp was bleached in 0.01 M solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with addition of 4% hydrogen peroxide of absolute dry pulp (ODP). Conversion to alpha-cellulose or mercerized cellulose was achieved by soaking bleached cellulosic materials in 17.5% solution of NaOH for 15 minutes at 25oC. The mercerized cellulose was thoroughly washed with large amount of distilled water until pH of the filtrate reached to natural, then vacuum dried at 60oC. From Scanning electron microscope (SEM) all mercerized woods cellulose were differ in microfibril size with high irregularity observed in sawmill sawdust. Formation of cellulose II was confirmed with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ft-IR) analysis. Preparation of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane was obtained by dissolving dry mercerized cellulose in molten 1 butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) in the presence of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) to produce a transparent solid gel film. All SPE membranes exhibit conductivity in the range of 3.6 x 10-6 to 5.7 x 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature. It was also observed that the conductivity of the SPE is affected by the size of cellulose microfibril and type of extraction. It was then further characterized with SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA.

KEYWORDS: Wood, Organosolv, Cellulose, mercerized, SPE, conductivity


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Collin G. Josepha*, S.M. Anisuzzamanb, Pak Yan Moha, E-W Amy Lima
aWater Research Unit, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
bChemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering,
University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +6 088 320000 ext. 2117; Fax: + 6 088 435324; e-mail: collin@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from cut pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) via semi-carbonization followed by physical activation using a two-stage self-generated atmosphere method. The best AC was obtained by using a temperature of 700°C and 5 hours of carbonization period. The percentage yield decreased with increasing activation temperature, whereas the activation time did not have a significant effect on the yield. With a moisture content and ash content of less than 10% and 1% respectively, this material was suitable for AC production. The BET surface area was measured at 515.41 m2/g, with a Type I isotherm and an H4-type adsorption hysteresis loop concurring that the AC was a microporous solid with chemisorption properties.

KEYWORDS. Activated carbon (AC), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5- DCP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), physical activation


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1Ahmad Fauzi Nordin, 1Hassan Jamil, 1Mohd Noor Isa, 1Azhari Mohamed
2Sanudin Hj. Tahir, 2Baba Musta,
3Rene Forsberg, 3Arne Olesen, 3Emil Nielsen
4Abd Majid A Kadir, 4Ahmad Fahmi Abd Majid
5Kamaludin Talib, 5Saiful Aman Sulaiman
1Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 50578 Kuala Lumpur
2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources,Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400
Kota Kinabalu,Sabah
3National Space Institute, Denmark Technical University, Copenhagen, Denmark
4Info-Geomatik, 81300 Skudai, Johor
5Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA
40450 Shah Alam, Selangor

ABSTRACT. Airborne gravimetry is an effective tool for mapping local gravity fields using a combination of airborne sensors, aircraft and positioning systems. It is suitable for gravity surveys over difficult terrains and areas mixed with land and ocean. This paper describes the geological mapping of Sabah using airborne gravity surveys. Airborne gravity data over land areas of Sabah has been combined with the marine airborne gravity data to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage in order to produce the geological mapping. Free-air and Bouguer anomaly maps (density 2.67 g/cm3) have been derived from the airborne data both as simple ad-hoc plots (at aircraft altitude), and as final plots from the downward continued airborne data, processed as part of the geoids determination. Data are gridded at 0.025 degree spacing which is about 2.7 km and the data resolution of the filtered airborne gravity data were 5-6 km. The airborne gravity survey database for land and marine areas has been compiled using ArcGIS geodatabase format in order to produce the update geological map of Sabah.

KEYWORDS. Airborne gravimetry, gravity field, ArcGIS, geological mapping,


  • Alberts, B.A., Ditmar, P., & Klees, R., 2007. A new methodology to process airborne gravimetry data: advances and problems. In: Tregoning P and Rizos C, (eds.). Proceedings of Dynamic Planet -Monitoring and Understanding a Dynamic Planet with Geodetic and Oceanographic Tools, volume 130 of IAG Symposia, pages 251–258, Cairns, Australia.
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  • Sanudin Hj. Tahir & Baba Musta., 2007. Pengenalan kepada Stratigrafi (Introduction to Stratighraphy). Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu.
  • Sanudin, T., Baba Musta, & Ismail, A.R., 2010. Geological heritage features of Tawau volcanic sequence, Sabah. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia 56, pp. 79 – 85
  • Yin, E. H., 1985. Geological Map of Sabah, East Malaysia. 3rd Edition, Geological Suryey of Malaysia.

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Rozaimi1* Zakaria, Abd Fatah2 Wahab, R.U. Gobithaasan2, Isfarita3 Ismail
1Faculty Science and Natural Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS),
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
2School of Informatics and Applie d Mathematics,
3Institute of Oceanography and Environment,
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia.
Corresponding author’s email: rozaimi@ums.edu.my (Tel: 088-320000 ext: 5628,Fax: 088-320223)

ABSTRACT. This paper introduces fuzzy interpolation rational bicubic Bezier surface (later known as FIRBBS) which can be used to model the fuzzy data forms after defining uncertainty data by using fuzzy set theory. The construction of FIRBBS is based on the definition of fuzzy number concept since we dealing with the real uncertainty  data form and interpolation rational bicubic Bezier surface model. Then, in order to obtain the crisp fuzzy solution, we applied the alpha-cut operation of triangular fuzzy number to reduce the fuzzy interval among those fuzzy data points(FDPs). After that, we applied defuzzification method to give us the final solution of getting single surface which also knows as crisp fuzzy solution surface. The practical example also is given which represented by figures for each processes. This practical example take the fuzzy data of lakebed modeling based on uncertainty at z-axis(depth).

KEYWORD. Fuzzy number, rational bicubic Bezier surface, interpolation, alpha-cut, defuzzification.


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Azmizam Manie @ Mani *, Saafie Salleh, Fuei Pien Chee, Afishah Alias & Saturi Baco
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MALAYSIA.
*Corresponding author: azmizam.manie@yahoo.com; Tel: +6 014 874 1296

ABSTRACT. This paper described the fabrication of Zinc Oxide (ZnO)-Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) heterojunction thin films using RF-powered Magnetron Sputtering System. The deposition parameters were controlled to produce the films with the thicknesses in the range of 100 nm to 500 nm. During deposition, the RF power and the argon flow are fixed at 100 Watt and 10 sccm, respectively. Structural and optical properties were studied by X-Ray Diffraction Method and UV-VIS Spectrometer. The electrical properties were studied by IV SourceMeter. The grain sizes of both thin films increasing while the thickness increase. The band gap of ZnO thin films range from 3.25 eV -3.27 eV and for Cu2O thin films range from 2.00 eV – 2.15 e V. All Cu2O/ZnO thin films show ideal diode properties.

KEYWORDS: ZnO, Cu2O, thin film, heterojunction device


  • Craciun, V., Elders, J., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Geretovsky, J. & Boyd, I.W. Thin solid films 259 (1995) 1-4.
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  • Ghotbi, M. Y. “Nickel doped zinc oxide nanoparticles produced by hydrothermal decomposition of nickel-doped zinc hydroxide nitrate,” Particuology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 492–496, Aug. 2012.
  • Ievskaya, Y., Hoye, R. L. Z., Sadhanala, A., Musselman, K. P. & MacManus-Driscoll, J. L. “Fabrication of ZnO/Cu2O heterojunctions in atmospheric conditions: Improved interface quality and solar cell performance,” Solar Energy Material Solar Cells, vol. 135, pp. 43–48, 2014.
  • Lee, Y. S., Buonassisi, T. & Hardt, D. E. “Defect Engineering of Cuprous Oxide Thin-Films for Photovoltaic Applications,” 2013.
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  • Nam, T., Lee, C. W., Kim, H. J. & Kim, H. “Growth Characteristics and Properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) Thin Films Grown by Thermal and Plasma-enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition,” Applied Surface Science, pp. 2–7, Jan. 2014.


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Volume 37, Issue 1 (Full Volume)

Extraction Of 4H-Pyran-4-One, 2,3-Dihydro-3,5-Dihydroxy-6-Methyl-, An Alternative Antifungal Agent, From Schizophyllum commune: Optimization And Kinetic Study
Yi Peng, Teoh and Mashitah, Mat Don

Biomonitoring of Streams: Using Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in Responses to the Different Types of Land Use at Tabin Wildlife Reserve (TWR), Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia
-  Arman Hadi Fikri, Audrey Ang Chii Shian, Sahana Harun &
Kueh Boon Hee

In Vitro Bioactivities and Phytochemicals Content of Vegetables from Sabah, Malaysia
- Jualang A. G., Adznila E., How S. E.

Chemical and Microbial Evaluation of Some Uncommon Indigenous Fruits and Nuts
- Ogwu, M. C., Osawaru, M. E. and Atsenokhai, E. I.

Growth and Yield Analysis of Sungkai (Peronema canescens Jack.) in Kalimantan, Indonesia
- Wahyudi, A. R Mojiol, Z. Muttaqin

Download FULL Volume Here (via Google Drive)


Yi Peng Teoh1,2* and Mashitah Mat Don1

1School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang
Perai South, Penang, Malaysia.
2Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), P.O Box 77,
D/A Pejabat Pos Besar, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
Email: teoh.yipeng@gmail.com

ABSTRACT. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (DDMP) was believed as a promising alternative in term antifungal activity towards fungal attack in rubberwood. Solid-liquid extraction is performed from basidiomycetes fungus Schizophyllum commune in methanol-water solvent, in order to obtain valuable antifungal agent. Statistical optimization was employed to optimize the extraction condition for maximal total flavonoid content (TFC) and DDMP productivity. The optimum conditions were 70.75% (v/v) methanol, 29 °C, and 145 rpm. The optimization studies were verified and the experimental data fitted well to the selected models with error percentage less than 1%. The extraction kinetics was then investigated using Parabolic diffusion model, Power law model, Peleg’s model, and Elovich’s model. All empirical models gave a good fit to the experimental data (R2 > 0.9), in which the Power law model having the highest R2 and lowest RMSD values.

KEYWORDS. Schizophyllum commune; total flavonoid content (TFC); 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3- dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (DDMP); optimization; extraction kinetics



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  • Sturzoiu, A., Stroescu, M., Guzun, A.S. & Dobre, T. 2011. Empirical models applied for kinetics extraction of β-carotene from Rosa canina. Revista de Chimie 62(3): 344-348.
  • Teoh, Y.P., Mashitah, M.D. & Ujang, S. 2012. Nutrient improvement using statistical optimization for growth ofSchizophyllum commune, and its antifungal activity against wood degrading fungi of rubberwood. Biotechnology Progress 28(1): 232-241.
  • Teoh, Y.P. & Mashitah, M.D. 2013. In-vitro antifungal properties and phytochemical analysis of filamentous white-rot fungi, Schizophyllum commune. Sains Malaysiana 42(9):
  • Tiwari, P., Kumar, B., Kaur, M., Kaur, G. & Kaur, H. 2011. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. International Pharmaceutical Science 1(1): 98-106.
  • Uma, D.B., Ho, C.W. & Wan Aida, W.M. 2010. Optimization of extraction parameters of total phenolic compounds from Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves. Sains Malaysiana 39(1): 119-128.

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Arman Hadi Fikri, Audrey Ang Chii Shian, Sahana Harun & Kueh Boon Hee

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ITBC)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS),
Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah, Malaysia

ABSTRACT. A preliminary study on three aquatic insect orders, namely Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly), and Trichoptera (caddisfly) (EPT) was conducted at Tabin Wildlife Reserve (TWR), Lahad Datu, Sabah in January and February 2015. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the composition of EPT along a stream at TWR, (ii) the distribution of EPT in each different land use at TWR, and (iii) the relationship between EPT communities and the water quality of the stream at TWR. Kick net sampling technique was used for collecting the EPT communities along Sg. Lipad of TWR. The most dominant order was Ephemeroptera consisting of 11 families with 1,354 individuals out of the total of 1,724 individuals and 26 families of EPT communities sampled. Trichoptera was the second most abundant order with nine families and 258 individuals, and lastly, Plecoptera with only six families and 112 individuals. There were more families of EPT communities distributed in secondary forest as compared to the oil palm plantation. Several exclusive families were found
in secondary forest, while only one family was found in oil palm plantation. The habitat run showed the highest in abundance of EPT, while pool recorded the least in abundance. Four biotic indices (BMWP, ASPT, FBI, and INWQS) and a few physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, conductivity, and DO) were used in this study to determine the water quality of the sampling location. Based on the biotic indices and physico-chemical parameters, the status of water in Sg. Lipad was in excellent condition. The two water quality tests showed profound consistency. This serves as a confirmation that the EPT communities are effective to be used as a biomonitoring tool at TWR.

KEYWORDS. Aquatic insects EPT physico-chemical parameters biomonitoring Sg. Lipad Tabin


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Jualang A. G.*, Adznila E., How S. E.

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding e-mail: azlanajg@ums.edu.my

ABSTRACT. This study aims to investigate potential of vegetables from Sabah with valueadded benefits in nutraceuticals. Fifty-five samples of vegetables were collected from local market and tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH• assay. Four species with high DPPH• scavenging activity (>80%) which are Cosmos caudatus, Eryngium foetidum, Ipomoea batatas and Manihot esculenta Crantz were selected and subjected to different solvents extraction and tested to different scavenging assays (DPPH•, O2• and NO•), protein kinasephosphatase assay (GSK-3β, MKK1, and MSG5) and antibacterial tests. Ethanol extract of I. batatas (90.56%), boiled water extract of M. esculenta Crantz (62.77%) and extractable polyphenol extract of E. foetidum (50.93%) exhibits comparable scavenging activities to catechin for DPPH•, O2• and NO•, respectively. Polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and proanthocynidins are detected in all extracts at concentration between 0.001 mg/g to 0.52 mg/g. The highest total polyphenols content (0.40±0.01 mg GAE/g), total phenolics content (0.52±0.01 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids content (0.13±0.01 mg CE/g) and total proanthocyanidins content (0.12±0 mg CE/g) were obtained in extractable polyphenols of Cosmos caudatus. No extracts were observed as inhibitor for GSK-3β, MKK1 and MSG5. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.0 mm to 12.3 mm) was only obtained in extractable polyphenols and ethanol extracts. Extractable polyphenols of E. foetidum exhibit the largest inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.3 mm).

KEYWORDS. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Antikinases, Antiphosphatases, Cosmos caudatus, Eryngium foetidum, Ipomoea batatas, Manihot esculenta



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*1,2Ogwu, M. C., 1Osawaru, M. E. and 1Atsenokhai, E. I.

1Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of
Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2Keimyung University, Center for International Education and Development, 1095
Dalgubeol – Daero, Daegu, South Korea
*Corresponding author: matthew.ogwu@uniben.edu

ABSTRACT. Fruits and nuts are essential components of animal and human diets and desert. They represent diverse genetic resources in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Nigeria, exotic fruits are more popular as indigenous ones are largely underutilized. This study examined the chemical components of five uncommon fruits: African oil bean [Pentaclathra macrophylla, Fabaceae], Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranean, Fabaceae], African bush mango [Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingiaceae], African pear [Dacryodes edulis, Burseraceae] and Nigerian walnut [Tetracarpidium conophorum, Euphorbiaceae]. The fresh fruits/nuts were collected from parts of Edo State, Southern Nigeria. Results showed that alkaloid was present in fresh and cooked samples of walnut and pear, and only present in fresh samples of P. macrophylla and V. subterranean. Alkaloid was absent in both fresh and cooked I. gaborensis. The result of mineral composition of the samples suggests highest calcium, potassium and magnesium content was obtained in African pear and P. macrophylla for sodium, zinc and iron. Presence of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and lactic acid was confirmed in all the fruits. The highest concentration of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and lactic acid was obtained from I. gaborensis, V. subterranean, P. macrophylla and D. edulis respectively. The highest bacterial and fungal count in fresh samples was from Bambara groundnut and P. macrophylla respectively. This study has
implicated the relevance of these uncommon fruits and nuts. It is recommended therefore that their awareness should be improved in order to sustain their marketability and food use.

KEYWORDS. Tropical fruits and nuts, Underutilized fruits, Plant genetic resources, Vegetables, Phytochemicals, Nigeria


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Growth and Yield Analysis of Sungkai (Peronema canescens Jack.) in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Wahyudi 1, A. R Mojiol 2, Z. Muttaqin 3

1Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University, Palangka Raya,
Indonesia (isanautama@yahoo.com)
2Forestry Complex, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University of Malaysia,
Sabah, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Forestry, Nusa Bangsa University, Bogor, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT. Sungkai (Peronema canescens) is a local commercial tree (native species) that has the potential to be developed as a plantation forest and agroforestry estate. This study aims to determine the percentage of survivality, productivity, optimum cutting cycle, and financial benefits of the Sungkai tree. The study was conducted in the people plantation, Kapuas district, Central Kalimantan Province. The research took the growth parameter of Sungkai which was grown since the year 2001 to 2013 in areas with the ultisol soil type. Data analysis has been using the average value of diameter, height and volume, annual increment (annual), the regression equation of NPV, BCR and IRR. The results showed that in 12 years the percentage of Sungkai survivality reached 89.7%, with an annual increase of 14.10 m3 ha-1 year-1 and a density of 997 trees ha-1. The Equation modelling of Sungkai plantation is y = 2.073 + 1.6623x – 0.0165×2 (R2 = 84.05%). At the level of loan interest of 9% per year, Sungkai have an economic harvest cycle of 15 years with NPV Rp. 58.49 million ha-1, BCR: 7.64 and IRR: 11.75%. Whereas, when the loan interest rate of 6% and 12% per annum, then the cutting cycle of 15 years, the NPV are to Rp. 92.65 million ha-1 and Rp. 36.6 million ha-1 respectively. In this study, Sungkai tree are very suitable to be developed in agroforestry and to increase the productivity of land such as shifting cultivation area, scrubland and low potential forest areas which were widespread, especially in Kalimantan, Borneo.


KEYWORDS. Sungkai, Growth and yield, mean annual increment, Peronema canescens, and economic cutting cycle, Kalimantan


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Volume 36, Issue 2 (Full Volume)



Autonomous Tawaf Crowd Simulation
Ahmad Zakwan Azizul Fata, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Sarudin Kari (p.1)

Fuzzy Soft Shadow in Augmented Reality System
- Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Ismahafezi Ismail & Mahyar Kolivand (p.8)
Primitives Penetration Depth Computation using Dynamic Pivot Point Technique
Hamzah Asyrani Sulaiman & Abdullah Bade (p.19)
Hybrid Federated Data Warehouse Integration Model: Implementation in Mud Crabs Case Study
- Mustafa Man, W. Aezwani W.A. Bakar, Noraida Hj. Ali & Masita Abd. Jalil (p.28)

Part-Body Detection Framework for People Detection using Sliced HOG Descriptors
- Ahmad Sani, Mohd Daud Kasmuni, Mahardhika Candra Prasetyahadi, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim & Mohd Shahrizal Sunar (p.39)


Originally Submitted in 2015. Published Online in 2016.

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If you can’t access this Volume, please contact Borneo Science Journal to get the full volume.


Ahmad Zakwan Azizul Fata, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Sarudin Kari

MaGIC-X (Media and Games Innonovation Centre of Excellence
UTM-IRDA Digital Media Centre
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Johor, Malaysia
Zakwan.fata@gmail.com, shafryr@utm.my, sarudin@utm.my

ABSTRACT. One of the most famous approaches to simulate a large density crowd is by applying the social force model. This model can be successfully used to simulate agents’ movement in real-world scenarios realistically. Nevertheless, this is very simple and not suitable to simulate a complex pedestrian flow movement. Hence, this research proposes a new novel model for simulating the pilgrims’ movements circling the Kaabah (Tawaf). These rituals are complex yet unique, due to its capacity, density, and various demographics backgrounds of the agents (pilgrims). It also had a certain set of rules and regulations that must be followed by the agents. Due to these rules, the Tawafcan introduce irregularities in the motion flow around the Kaabah. In order to make the simulation realistically, each agent will be assigned with different attributes such as; age, gender and intention outlook. The three parameters mentioned above, are the main problems that need to be solved in this research in order to simulate a better crowd simulation than previous studies. The findings of this research will contribute greatly for Hajj management in term of controlling and optimizing the flow of pilgrims during Tawaf especially in the Hajj season.

KEYWORDS. Autonomous Agents; Crowd Simulation; Hajj.



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  • Hughes, R., Ondrej, J. & Dingliana, J. 2014. Holonomic Collision Avoidance for Virtual Crowds. Proceedings of the Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation 2014, pp. 1–8.
  • Sarmady S., Haron F. & Talib A. Z. 2011. A cellular automata model for circular movements of pedestrians during Tawaf. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. Elsevier.
  • Zainuddin Z., Thinakaran K. & Abu-Sulyman I. M. 2010. Simulating the Circumambulation of the Ka’aba using SimWalk. European Journal of Scientific Research, 38(3): 454-464.

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